Incident and prevalent (I&P) rates in dialysis end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in Taiwan increased rapidly following the launch of National Health Insurance (NHI) in 1995. Our aim was to explore the impact of NHI on the status and trends of ESRD epidemiology in Taiwan.
This study was conducted using retrospective cohort analysis of data collected from the Taiwan national dialysis registry.
From 1990 to 2001, I&P rates of ESRD patients increased 2.6 times from 126 to 331 per million populations (pmp) and 3.46 times from 382 to 1322 pmp, respectively. Increasing ESRD was seen in patients who were middle-aged, elderly and who had diabetic nephropathy as their primary renal disease. The mean age of I&P patients increased by 7.2 years and 7.1 years, respectively. All of these parameters increased markedly in 1995, the year of NHI implementation. First-year mortality decreased to 7.8 per 1000 patient-months in 1994, and then increased to 18.0 in 2001. The cumulative survival rate of the elderly subgroup (age >65) in the incident 1990-1994 cohort was greater than in the 1995-1999 cohort. These data indicated that NHI implementation significantly influenced the inflow and the mortality of ESRD patients.
In addition to presenting ESRD epidemiology in Taiwan, this study demonstrated that NHI implementation stimulated the growth of treated ESRD populations. Preventive plans mounted against chronic kidney diseases will be essential to reduce the growth of ESRD patient numbers and consequent economic burdens.
"Mortality in patients with end-stage renal diseases (ESRDs) remains high mainly because of their high cardiovascular disease burden   . The kidney disease outcome quality initiative (KDOQI) guidelines recommend that conventional echocardiography should be performed at the initiation of dialysis and every 3 years thereafter in all ESRD patients for cardiac risk stratification and optimization of therapies    . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE), we recently demonstrated that a left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) ≥ -15% and the serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) concentration are associated with mortality in stable hemodialysis patients with preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF). In this study, we explored the relationship between cTnT and echocardiographic parameters and evaluated whether the prognostic value provided by cTnT is independent of a GLS ≥ -15% and vice versa. Eighty-eight stable hemodialysis patients with preserved LVEF were followed for 31 months. STE studies and measurements of cTnT were performed at baseline. CTnT concentration had a modest correlation with GLS (r s = 0.44; P < 0.001) but had a weak or nonsignificant correlation with other echocardiographic parameters. Adjusting for clinical parameters, hazard ratios for each increase of 0.01 ng/mL in cTnT, and a GLS ≥ -15% on mortality were 1.13 (P = 0.009) and 3.09 (P = 0.03) without significant interaction between cTnT and GLS ≥ -15%. In addition, an increased cTnT concentration, a GLS ≥ -15%, or their combination showed significant additional predictive value for mortality when included in models consisting of clinical parameters. Therefore, both cTnT and a GLS ≥ -15% are independent predictors of mortality and are useful for risk stratification.
BioMed Research International 05/2014; 2014:217290. DOI:10.1155/2014/217290 · 3.17 Impact Factor
"Prevalence of both HBV and HCV are notably higher in hemodialysis (HD) patients than in the general population 2, 3, contributed mostly by blood transfusions in the pre-erythropoietin era and also the nature of extracorporeal blood exposure. By the year 2000, a survey of national HD cohorts in Taiwan showed a positive rate of 10.6% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 26.5% for HCV antibody (anti-HCV) 4. It was suggested that the high prevalence rate of chronic HBV/HCV hepatitis explained the higher morbidity and mortality caused by liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HD patients 5, 6. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Aim: Viral hepatitis is a health threat for hemodialysis (HD) patients and it may be transmitted during treatment. Some patients categorized to have viral hepatitis were found to be non-viremic. To clarify the discrepancy between the serological tests in HD patients, we conducted the study.
Methods: A total of 1681 HD patients was included. Blood samples were analyzed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV). Detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA were performed in either HBsAg (+) or anti-HCV (+) samples. HBV DNA/HCV RNA was also measured in a subset of HBsAg (-) and anti-HCV (-) patients. Liver function tests were analyzed and compared with the serological and virological tests.
Results: The serological tests showed that 230 patients (13.7%) were HBsAg (+) and 290 (17.3%) were anti-HCV (+). We were unable to detect HBV DNA in 97 of 230 (42.2%) HBsAg (+) patients, and HCV RNA could not be found in 76 of 290 (26.2%) anti-HCV (+) patients. In 167 HBsAg (-) patients, only one showed a trace amount of HBV DNA. None of 151 anti-HCV (-) patients showed detectable HCV RNA. The prevalence rate of viral hepatitis remains high in Taiwanese HD patients: 13.7% for HBV and 17.3% for HCV. However, virological analysis showed 42.2% non-viremic rate for HBsAg and 26.2% non-viremic rate for anti-HCV.
Conclusions: The findings might challenge the presently suggested principles of bed and machine dedication and the diagnosis of viral hepatitis in HD patients.
International journal of medical sciences 03/2014; 11(5):436-41. DOI:10.7150/ijms.8265 · 2.00 Impact Factor
"However, when survival is compared within older populations, the risk of age is controversial –. Short-term survival for elderly patients starting dialysis varies from 50% to 80% , . In a study on short-term survival of elderly patients on dialysis, increased alcohol consumption, cardiac dyskinesis, age at onset of dialysis, serum phosphate, and number of comorbid illnesses were correlated with the risk of mortality and normal serum albumin reduced the risk of mortality . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies on risk factors of mortality in elderly patients with hemodialysis usually focus on comorbidities, nutrition, and inflammation. Discussion on the correlation between living environment and mortality of these patients is limited.
A total of 256 elderly hemodialysis patients participated in this 2-year prospective observational study. The subjects were divided into 2 subgroups based on whether they were living in Taipei Basin (n = 63) or not (n = 193). Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained for cross-sectional analysis. Causes of death and mortality rates were also analyzed for each subgroup.
Patients in the basin group had a higher incidence of combined protein-energy wasting and inflammation than those in the around basin group. At the end of the 2-year follow-up, 68 patients had died. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that a very advanced age, basin group, serum albumin levels, serum creatinine levels, non-anuria, and the complications of stroke and CAD were associated with 2-year mortality. Meanwhile, log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were not associated with 2-year mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that basin group, serum albumin levels, and the complications of stroke and CAD were significant risk factors for 2-year mortality in these patients.
The results of this study indicate that factors such as living in the Taipei Basin with higher air pollutant levels in elderly hemodialysis patients is associated with protein-energy wasting and inflammation, as well as 2-year mortality. These findings suggest that among this population, living environment is as important as comorbidities and nutrition. Furthermore, air pollution should be getting more attention especially in the overcrowding Basin topography.
PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74358. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0074358 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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