Incidence, prevalence and mortality trends of dialysis end-stage renal disease in Taiwan from 1990 to 2001: the impact of national health insurance.
ABSTRACT Incident and prevalent (I&P) rates in dialysis end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in Taiwan increased rapidly following the launch of National Health Insurance (NHI) in 1995. Our aim was to explore the impact of NHI on the status and trends of ESRD epidemiology in Taiwan.
This study was conducted using retrospective cohort analysis of data collected from the Taiwan national dialysis registry.
From 1990 to 2001, I&P rates of ESRD patients increased 2.6 times from 126 to 331 per million populations (pmp) and 3.46 times from 382 to 1322 pmp, respectively. Increasing ESRD was seen in patients who were middle-aged, elderly and who had diabetic nephropathy as their primary renal disease. The mean age of I&P patients increased by 7.2 years and 7.1 years, respectively. All of these parameters increased markedly in 1995, the year of NHI implementation. First-year mortality decreased to 7.8 per 1000 patient-months in 1994, and then increased to 18.0 in 2001. The cumulative survival rate of the elderly subgroup (age >65) in the incident 1990-1994 cohort was greater than in the 1995-1999 cohort. These data indicated that NHI implementation significantly influenced the inflow and the mortality of ESRD patients.
In addition to presenting ESRD epidemiology in Taiwan, this study demonstrated that NHI implementation stimulated the growth of treated ESRD populations. Preventive plans mounted against chronic kidney diseases will be essential to reduce the growth of ESRD patient numbers and consequent economic burdens.
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ABSTRACT: According to the official health statistics, Taiwan has the highest prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. Each year, around 60,000 ESRD patients in Taiwan consume 6% of the national insurance budget for dialysis treatment. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been climbing during 2008-2012. However, the spatial disparities and clustering of CKD at the public health level have rarely been discussed. The aims of this study are to explore the possible population level risk factors and identify any clusters of CKD, using the national health insurance database. The results show that the ESRD prevalence in females is higher than that in males. ESRD medical expenditure constitutes 87% of total CKD medical expenditure. Pre-CKD and pre-ESRD disease management might slow the progression from CKD to ESRD. After applying ordinary least-squares regression, the percentages of high education status and the elderly in the townships are positively correlated with CKD prevalence. Geographically weighted regression and Local Moran's I are used for identifying the clusters in southern Taiwan. The findings can be important evidence for earlier and targeted community interventions and reducing the health disparities of CKD.
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ABSTRACT: Discontinuation of acute, unplanned dialysis is always an important therapeutic goal in dialysis-requiring patients with existing chronic kidney disease. Only a limited proportion of patients could be weaned off dialysis and remained dialysis-free. Here we performed a multicenter, observational study to investigate factors associated with successful weaning from acute dialysis, and to explore the potential impact of weaning itself on outcomes of patients with chronic kidney disease following urgent-start dialysis. We recruited 440 chronic kidney disease patients with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 ml/min per 1/73 m2, and used propensity score-adjusted Cox regression analysis to measure the effect of weaning from acute dialysis on death during the index hospitalization and death or readmission after discharge. Over 2 years, 64 of 421 (15.2%) patients who survived >1 month died, and 36 (8.6%) were removed from dialysis, with 26 (6.2%) remaining alive and dialysis-free. Logistic regression analysis found that age ≧ 65 years, ischemic acute tubular necrosis, nephrotoxic exposure, urinary obstruction, and higher predialysis estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum hemoglobin were predictors of weaning off dialysis. After adjustment for propensity scores for dialysis weaning, Cox proportional hazards models showed successful weaning from dialysis (adjusted hazard ratio 0.06; 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.35), along with a history of hypertension and serum albumin, were independent protectors for early death. Conversely, a history of stroke, peripheral arterial disease and cancer predicted the occurrence of early mortality. In conclusion, this prospective cohort study shows that compared to patients with chronic kidney disease who became end-stage renal disease after acute dialysis, patients who could be weaned off acute dialytic therapy were associated with reduced risk of premature death over a 2-year observation period.PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0123386. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123386 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. PPAR-γ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reportedly play an important role in determining metabolic risk among diverse population. Whether PPAR-γ SNPs affect the clinical courses in ESRD patients is unknown. Methods. From a multicenter cohort, we identified 698 patients with prevalent ESRD between 2002 and 2003, and other 782 healthy subjects as control. Two PPAR-γ SNPs, Pro12Ala (rs1801282) and C161T (rs3856806), were genotyped and their association with ESRD was examined. Both groups were prospectively followed until 2007, and the predictability of genotypes for the long-term survival of ESRD patients was analyzed. Results. After multivariable-adjusted regression, GG genotype of Pro12Ala was significantly more likely to associate with ESRD () among patients with non-diabetes-related ESRD. Cox’s proportional hazard regression showed that both Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms were significant predictors of mortality in ESRD patients with DM (Pro12Ala: GG versus other genotypes, hazard ratio [HR] <0.01; ; for C161T, CC versus TT genotypes, HR 2.86; ; CT versus TT genotypes, HR 1.93; ). Conclusion. This is the first and largest study to evaluate PPAR-γ SNPs in ESRD patients. Further mechanistic study is needed to elucidate the role of PPAR-γ among ESRD patients.Disease markers 02/2015; 2015:1-7. DOI:10.1155/2015/763459 · 2.17 Impact Factor