Characterization of the mitochondrial protein LETM1, which maintains the mitochondrial tubular shapes and interacts with the AAA-ATPase BCS1L.
ABSTRACT LETM1 is located in the chromosomal region that is deleted in patients suffering Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome; it encodes a homolog of the yeast protein Mdm38 that is involved in mitochondrial morphology. Here, we describe the LETM1-mediated regulation of the mitochondrial volume and its interaction with the mitochondrial AAA-ATPase BCS1L that is responsible for three different human disorders. LETM1 is a mitochondrial inner-membrane protein with a large domain extruding to the matrix. The LETM1 homolog LETM2 is a mitochondrial protein that is expressed preferentially in testis and sperm. LETM1 downregulation caused mitochondrial swelling and cristae disorganization, but seemed to have little effect on membrane fusion and fission. Formation of the respiratory-chain complex was impaired by LETM1 knockdown. Cells lacking mitochondrial DNA lost active respiratory chains but maintained mitochondrial tubular networks, indicating that mitochondrial swelling caused by LETM1 knockdown is not caused by the disassembly of the respiratory chains. LETM1 was co-precipitated with BCS1L and formation of the LETM1 complex depended on BCS1L levels, suggesting that BCS1L stimulates the assembly of the LETM1 complex. BCS1L knockdown caused disassembly of the respiratory chains as well as LETM1 downregulation and induced distinct changes in mitochondrial morphology.
- SourceAvailable from: Santhanam Shanmughapriya[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of mitochondrial Ca(2+)-dependent bioenergetics has been implicated in various pathophysiological settings, including neurodegeneration and myocardial infarction. Although mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport has been characterized, and several molecules, including LETM1, have been identified, the functional role of LETM1-mediated Ca(2+) transport remains unresolved. This study examines LETM1-mediated mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport and bioenergetics in multiple cell types, including fibroblasts derived from patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). The results show that both mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx and efflux rates are impaired in LETM1 knockdown, and similar phenotypes were observed in ΔEF hand, (D676A D688K)LETM1 mutant-overexpressed cells, and in cells derived from patients with WHS. Although LETM1 levels were lower in WHS-derived fibroblasts, the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter components MCU, MCUR1, and MICU1 remain unaltered. In addition, the MCU mitoplast patch-clamp current (IMCU) was largely unaffected in LETM1-knockdown cells. Silencing of LETM1 also impaired basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption, possibly via complex IV inactivation and ATP production. Remarkably, LETM1 knockdown also resulted in increased reactive oxygen species production. Further, LETM1 silencing promoted AMPK activation, autophagy, and cell cycle arrest. Reconstitution of LETM1 or antioxidant overexpression rescued mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport and bioenergetics. These findings reveal the role of LETM1-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) flux in shaping cellular bioenergetics.-Doonan, P J., Chandramoorthy, H. C., Hoffman, N. E., Zhang, X., Cárdenas, C., Shanmughapriya, S., Rajan, S., Vallem, S., Chen, X., Foskett, J. K., Cheung, J. Y., Houser, S. R., Madesh, M. LETM1-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) flux modulates cellular bioenergetics and proliferation.The FASEB Journal 07/2014; · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria are functionally distinct with regard to membrane protein biogenesis and oxidative energy production, respectively, but cooperate in several essential cell functions, including lipid biosynthesis, cell signaling and organelle dynamics. The interorganellar cooperation requires local communication that can occur at the strategically positioned and dynamic associations between ER and mitochondria. Calcium is locally transferred from ER to mitochondria at the associations and exerts regulatory effects on numerous proteins. A common Ca(2+) sensing mechanism is the EF-hand Ca(2+) binding domain, many of which can be found in proteins of the mitochondria, including Miro1&2, MICU1,2&3, LETM1 and mitochondrial solute carriers. Recently, these proteins have triggered much interest and were described in reports with diverging conclusions. The present essay focuses on their shared features and established specific functions.Current opinion in cell biology. 07/2014; 29C:133-141.
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ABSTRACT: MPV17 is a mitochondrial protein of unknown function, and mutations in MPV17 are associated with mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) maintenance disorders. Here we investigated its most similar relative, MPV17L2, which is also annotated as a mitochondrial protein. Mitochondrial fractionation analyses demonstrate MPV17L2 is an integral inner membrane protein, like MPV17. However, unlike MPV17, MPV17L2 is dependent on mitochondrial DNA, as it is absent from ρ(0) cells, and co-sediments on sucrose gradients with the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome and the monosome. Gene silencing of MPV17L2 results in marked decreases in the monosome and both subunits of the mitochondrial ribosome, leading to impaired protein synthesis in the mitochondria. Depletion of MPV17L2 also induces mitochondrial DNA aggregation. The DNA and ribosome phenotypes are linked, as in the absence of MPV17L2 proteins of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome are trapped in the enlarged nucleoids, in contrast to a component of the large subunit. These findings suggest MPV17L2 contributes to the biogenesis of the mitochondrial ribosome, uniting the two subunits to create the translationally competent monosome, and provide evidence that assembly of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome occurs at the nucleoid.Nucleic Acids Research 06/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor