Changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease among White Mountain Apache persons in the era of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
ABSTRACT Prior to the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), the rate of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was 8-fold higher among White Mountain Apache persons of all ages than it was among the general US population, . We aimed to assess the impact of PCV7 and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine on the rate of IPD among White Mountain Apache persons.
From 1991 through 2006, we conducted active laboratory- and population-based surveillance among Native American residents of the White Mountain Apache reservation. Charts were reviewed and pneumococcal isolates were collected for serotype testing. Three time periods were defined: the pre-PCV7 baseline period (1991-1997), the PCV7 efficacy trial period (1998-2000), and the PCV7 routine-use period (2001-2006).
We identified 246 cases of IPD; the mean annual IPD rate fell from 126 cases per 100,000 person-years in the period 1991-1997 to 87 cases per 100,000 person-years in the period 2001-2006 (p = .01). The rate of IPD attributable to PCV7 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae decreased by 252 cases per 100,000 person-years (92%) among children aged <5 years, and that attributable to non-PCV7 serotypes of S. pneumoniae decreased by 87 cases per 100,000 person-years (44%) among children aged <5 years. Among adults, the rate of IPD remained unchanged; PCV7 serotypes of S. pneumoniae accounted for only 25% of adult cases during the period 1991-1997.
Since the introduction of PCV7, the rate of IPD among White Mountain Apache children aged <5 years has decreased to the lowest rate ever (122 cases per 100,000 person-years), but it remains 5.7-fold greater than the rate of IPD among children in the general US population. In contrast to some other high-risk populations, there is no evidence of non-vaccine-type replacement disease in this age group. Among White Mountain Apache adults, the rate of IPD remains substantially higher than that observed in the general US population. Vaccines with broader serotype coverage are needed to further reduce the disparity in the rate of IPD between the White Mountain Apache and general US populations.
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ABSTRACT: Young children played a major role in pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage, acquisition, and transmission in the era before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) use. Few studies document pneumococcal household dynamics in the routine-PCV7 era. We investigated age-specific acquisition, household introduction, carriage clearance, and intra-household transmission in a prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in 300 American Indian households comprising 1,072 participants between March 2006 and March 2008. Pneumococcal acquisition rates were 2-6 times higher in children than adults. More household introductions of new pneumococcal strains were attributable to children <9 years than adults ≥17 years (p<0.001), and older children (2-8 years) than younger children (<2 years) (p<0.008). Compared to children <2 years, carriage clearance was more rapid in older children (2-4 years, HRclearance 1.53 [95% CI: 1.22, 1.91]; 5-8 years, HRclearance 1.71 [1.36, 2.15]) and adults (HRclearance 1.75 [1.16, 2.64]). Exposure to serotype-specific carriage in older children (2-8 years) most consistently increased the odds of subsequently acquiring that serotype for other household members. In this community with a high burden of pneumococcal colonization and disease and routine PCV7 use, children (particularly older children 2-8 years) drive intra-household pneumococcal transmission: first, by acquiring, introducing, and harboring pneumococcus within the household, and then by transmitting acquired serotypes more efficiently than household members of other ages.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e79578. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of doses-the schedule-that will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses.The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 01/2014; 33 Suppl 2:S172-81. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protection against disease or colonization from serotypes related to those in pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (i.e. cross-protection) vary by serotype; the basis for this variation is not understood. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced 7-valent conjugate (PCV7) in the USA in 2010 allowing assessment of PCV7 and PCV13 immunogenicity and functional cross-protection in vitro. Post-primary, pre-booster and post-booster sera from American Indian children receiving exclusively PCV7 or PCV13 were collected. IgG was measured by ELISA for 13 vaccine serotypes; functional antibody was assessed by opsonophagocytic killing assays for serotypes 6A/B/C and 19A/F. Post-primary IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMC) for serotypes 4 and 9V were lower in PCV13 recipients while 19F GMCs were higher. Only 19F differences persisted after receipt of the booster dose. Functional antibody activity was higher among PCV13 recipients for 6A, 6C, 19A and 19F (p<0.04), and among PCV7 recipients for 6B (p = 0.01). Following PCV7, functional antibodies to 6A but not 19A were observed. High levels of 6C functional activity were seen after PCV13 but not PCV7. Functional antibody activity against 6A/B/C and 19A/F suggest that PCV13 is likely to control the 19A disease and 6C disease remaining despite widespread use of PCV7.PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74906. · 3.53 Impact Factor