The acute effect of green tea consumption on endothelial function in healthy individuals
ABSTRACT Tea consumption is associated with decreased cardiovascular risk. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery is related to coronary endothelial function and it is an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. Black tea has a beneficial effect on endothelial function; the effect, however, of green tea on brachial artery reactivity has not been defined yet.
We studied 14 healthy individuals (age 30+/-3 years) with no cardiovascular risk factors except from smoking (50%) on three separate occasions on which they took: (a) 6 g of green tea, (b) 125 mg of caffeine (the amount contained in 6 g of tea), or (c) hot water. FMD of the brachial artery was measured before each intervention and 30, 90, and 120 min afterward. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukins 6 (Il-6) and 1b (Il-1b), total plasma antioxidative capacity, and total plasma oxidative status/stress were measured at baseline and at 120 min after each intervention.
Resting and hyperemic brachial artery diameter did not change either with tea or with caffeine. FMD increased significantly with tea (by 3.69%, peak at 30 min, P<0.02), whereas it did not change significantly with caffeine (increase by 1.72%, peak at 30 min, P=NS). Neither tea nor caffeine had any effect on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, Il-6, Il-1b, total plasma antioxidative capacity, or total plasma oxidative status/stress.
Green tea consumption has an acute beneficial effect on endothelial function, assessed with FMD of the brachial artery, in healthy individuals. This may be involved in the beneficial effect of tea on cardiovascular risk.
- SourceAvailable from: Amrita Ahluwalia
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- "Previous studies have shown that certain acute interventions can enhance FMD responses in individuals classified as healthy volunteers. For instance following an acute intervention of flavonoid-rich green tea  "
ABSTRACT: Ingestion of inorganic nitrate elevates blood and tissue levels of nitrite via bioconversion in the entero-salivary circulation. Nitrite is converted to NO in the circulation, and it is this phenomenon that is thought to underlie the beneficial effects of inorganic nitrate in humans. Our previous studies have demonstrated that oral ingestion of inorganic nitrate decreases blood pressure and inhibits the transient endothelial dysfunction caused by ischaemia-reperfusion injury in healthy volunteers. However, whether inorganic nitrate might improve endothelial function per se in the absence of a pathogenic stimulus and whether this might contribute to the blood pressure lowering effects is yet unknown. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, crossover study in 14 healthy volunteers to determine the effects of oral inorganic nitrate (8 mmol KNO(3)) vs. placebo (8 mmol KCl) on endothelial function, measured by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery, prior to and 3h following capsule ingestion. In addition, blood pressure (BP) was measured and aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) determined. Finally, blood, saliva and urine samples were collected for chemiluminescence analysis of [nitrite] and [nitrate] prior to and 3h following interventions. Inorganic nitrate supplementation had no effect on endothelial function in healthy volunteers (6.9±1.1% pre- to 7.1±1.1% post-KNO(3)). Despite this, there was a significant elevation of plasma [nitrite] (0.4±0.1 μM pre- to 0.7±0.2 μM post-KNO(3), p<0.001). In addition these changes in [nitrite] were associated with a decrease in systolic BP (116.9±3.8mm Hg pre- vs. 112.1±3.4 mm Hg post-KNO(3), p<0.05) and aPWV (6.5±0.1 m/s pre- to 6.2±0.1 post-KNO(3), p<0.01). In contrast KCl capsules had no effect on any of the parameters measured. These findings demonstrate that although inorganic nitrate ingestion does not alter endothelial function per se, it does appear to improve blood flow, in combination with a reduction in blood pressure. It is likely that these changes are due to the intra-vascular production of NO.Nitric Oxide 01/2012; 26(4):197-202. DOI:10.1016/j.niox.2012.01.004 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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- "Since the reduction of FMD was not observed after DC ingestion, we can reasonably attribute the effects of CC on endothelial function to the presence of caffeine. In contrast with this hypothesis, two studies on tea consumption (Duffy et al., 2001; Alexopoulos et al., 2008) 25 included a caffeine control group and showed that acutely administered caffeine had no effect on FMD. However, these studies differ slightly with our own study. "
ABSTRACT: Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, but its effect on the cardiovascular system has not been fully understood. Coffee contains caffeine and antioxidants, which may influence endothelial function, both of which have not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effects of coffee on endothelial function measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). A total of 20 (10 males and 10 females) healthy non-obese subjects underwent a double-blind, crossover study. Subjects ingested one cup of caffeinated (CC) and one cup of decaffeinated (DC) Italian espresso coffee in random order at 5- to 7-day intervals. Following CC ingestion, FMD decreased progressively and significantly (mean+/-s.e.m.: 0 min, 7.7+/-0.6; 30 min, 6.3+/-0.7; 60 min, 6.0+/-0.8%; ANOVA (analysis of variance), P<0.05), but it did not significantly increase after DC ingestion (0 min, 6.9+/-0.6; 30 min, 8.1+/-0.9; 60 min, 8.5+/-0.9%; P=0.115). Similarly, CC significantly increased both systolic and diastolic blood pressure; this effect was not observed after DC ingestion. Blood glucose concentrations remained unchanged after ingestion of both CC and DC, but insulin (0 min, 15.8+/-0.9; 60 min, 15.0+/-0.8 muU/ml; P<0.05) and C-peptide (0 min, 1.25+/-0.09; 60 min, 1.18+/-0.09 ng/ml; P<0.01) blood concentrations decreased significantly only after CC ingestion. CC acutely induced unfavorable cardiovascular effects, especially on endothelial function. In the fasting state, insulin secretion is also likely reduced after CC ingestion. Future studies will determine whether CC has detrimental clinically relevant effects, especially in unhealthy subjects.European journal of clinical nutrition 05/2010; 64(5):483-9. DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2010.9 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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- "However, no reports as far as we know, have addressed the comparative influence of IL-1β on PGI 2 release, TF activity, or IL-6 protein release from HCAEC versus other endothelial cell types. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested that black and green tea consumption may have beneficial effects on endothelial function and is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular events    . Black tea inhibited the proliferation of smooth muscle cells involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis  and mechanisms for the beneficial effects of "
ABSTRACT: The effects of anti-inflammatory plant extracts, such as black tea extract (BTE) and resveratrol (RSV) could modulate cell activation leading to atherosclerosis, however there is little comparative information about how different endothelial cell types are affected by these compounds. In order to compare human endothelial cells derived from different origins (umbilical vein or HUVEC, coronary artery or HCAEC, microvascular or HMVEC) and their interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) responsiveness, IL-6 ELISA, RT-PCR, tissue factor assay, and prostacyclin responses using 6-keto PGF1alpha ELISA were determined. The IL-1beta-induced IL-6 levels were dose-dependent with highest responses seen in HCAEC. Significant inhibition of IL-1beta responses was achieved with BTE and RSV, with the largest decrease of IL-6 and TF seen in HCAEC. Prostacyclin levels were highest in HUVEC and were inhibited by RSV in all cell types. The differences between the endothelial cell types could account for greater susceptibility of coronary arteries to inflammation and atherogenesis.Mediators of Inflammation 01/2009; 2009(0962-9351):146872. DOI:10.1155/2009/146872 · 3.24 Impact Factor