Erlotinib induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human H3255 non-small-cell lung cancer cells with epidermal growth factor receptorL858R mutation through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation-dependent activation of BAX and BAK.
ABSTRACT Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib shows potent antitumor activity in some non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and is approved by the Food and Drug Administration as second and third line treatment for NSCLC. However, the molecular mechanisms by which erlotinib induces apoptosis remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of erlotinib on apoptotic signal pathways in H3255 cells with the EGFR(L858R) mutation. Erlotinib induces apoptosis associated with the activation of caspases in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Erlotinib did not alter the expression of apoptotic receptors FAS and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), although it induced caspase-8 activation and BID cleavage. In addition, cell death caused by erlotinib was not prevented by coincubation with FAS and TRAIL antagonists, ZB-4 monoclonal antibody and TRAIL/Fc recombinant, suggesting that erlotinib-induced apoptosis is not associated with receptor-mediated pathways. Erlotinib induces loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct IAP binding protein with low pI from mitochondria. Furthermore, erlotinib causes BAX translocation to mitochondria, BAX and BAK conformational changes, and oligomerization. Erlotinib did not induce reactive oxygen species generation, and cotreatment with antioxidants did not alter erlotinib-induced activation of BAX and BAK and apoptosis. However, cotreatment with inhibitors of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation significantly blocked erlotinib-induced activation of BAX and BAK and cell death. Benzyloxycarbiny-VAD-fluoromethyl ketone had no effect on erlotinib-induced BAX and BAK activation but effectively prevented apoptosis. Overexpression of BCL-2 caused a significant attenuation of erlotinib-induced cell death, but no effect on BAX and BAK activation. Down-regulation of BAX and BAK gene expression with small interfering RNA led to an effective reduction of erlotinib-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that activation of BAX and BAK plays a critical role in the initiation of erlotinib-induced apoptotic cascades.
- SourceAvailable from: Jingqing Zhang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of EVO to decrease cell viability and promote cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. Lung cancer has the highest incidence and mortality rates among all cancers. Chemotherapy is the primary treatment for SCLC; however, the drugs that are currently used for SCLC are less effective than those used for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, it is necessary to develop new drugs to treat SCLC. In this study, the effects of evodiamine (EVO) on cell growth, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were investigated in the human SCLC cell lines NCI-H446 and NCI-H1688. The results represent the first report that EVO can significantly inhibit the viability of both H446 and H1688 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. EVO induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, induced apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of caspase-12 and cytochrome C protein, and induced the expression of Bax mRNA and by down-regulating of the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA in both H446 and H1688 cells. However, there was no effect on the protein expression of caspase-8. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of EVO on the growth of H446 and H1688 cells might be attributable to G2/M arrest and subsequent apoptosis, through mitochondria-dependent and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced pathways (intrinsic caspase-dependent pathways) but not through the death receptor-induced pathway (extrinsic caspase-dependent pathway). Our findings suggest that EVO is a promising novel and potent antitumor drug candidate for SCLC. Furthermore, the cell cycle, the mitochondria and the ER stress pathways are rational targets for the future development of an EVO delivery system to treat SCLC.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(12):e115204. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The analytical potential energy functions of the ground and two low-lying excited states of SH+ have been obtained using the Murrell–Sorbie function and ab initio potential energy curves. The spectroscopic parameters and ro-vibrational and pure rotational transitions are determined for the states. All the spectroscopic parameters for the ground and two low-lying excited states of SH+ and SD+ are in excellent agreement with the experimental data and better than the theoretical results in the literature. The present results for ro-vibrational or pure rotational transitions of the ground state (X3Σ−) are in good agreement with the experimental data available at present. The possible vibrational and rotational levels of two 3Π states are predicted.Computational and Theoretical Chemistry 01/2012; · 1.37 Impact Factor
- Chemico-biological Interactions - CHEM-BIOL INTER. 01/2002; 2002(10):133-138.