Interaction and functional interference of glucocorticoid receptor and SOCS1.
ABSTRACT Cytokine and glucocorticoid (GC) hormone signaling act in an integrated fashion to control inflammation and immune response. Here we establish a new mode of interaction of these two pathways and propose Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS)-1 as an essential player in mediating cross-talk. We observed that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and SOCS1 form an intracellular complex through an interaction, which required the SH2 domain of SOCS1 and the ligand binding domain of GR. Furthermore, GC stimulation was found to increase the nuclear level of SOCS1. SOCS1 binding to the GR did not require ligand binding of the receptor; however, it was abolished after long term GC stimulation, suggesting a functional role of the interaction for the early phase of GC action. The interaction between GR and SOCS1 appeared to negatively influence the transcription of the two GR-regulated genes, FKBP5 and MKP1, because the GC-dependent expression of these genes was inhibited by the SOCS1 inducer IFNgamma and enhanced in SOCS1-deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts as compared with IFNgamma treated wild-type cells. Our results suggest a prominent role of SOCS1 in the early phase of cross-talk between GR and cytokine signaling.
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ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid actions on the immune system are diverse and cell type dependent, and little is known about cell type-specific interactions and cross-talk between hormones and cytokines. In this study we have analyzed the gene expression patterns of the rainbow trout macrophage cell line RTS-11 by quantitative PCR, after exposure to combinations of cortisol plus a pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g. recombinant trout IL-1β, IFN-γ), type I IFN or a PAMP (LPS or poly I:C). Several key genes of the inflammatory process were targetted to assess whether any modulation of their expression occurred due to the addition of cortisol to this cell line. Incubation of macrophages for 3 or 6 h with a physiological concentration of cortisol caused a decrease in expression of IL-6 and IL-8, but no significant changes were observed for the other genes examined. Co-stimulation of cortisol with the inflammatory agents resulted in a general suppression of genes related to the inflammatory response. Cortisol inhibited the up-regulation of IL-8 by all the stimulants after 3 h of co-incubation. Suppression of the up-regulation of IL-6 by rIL-1β, rIFN-γ and poly I:C, of γIP by rIFN-γ or poly I:C, and of Cox-2 by rIL-1β was seen after 6 h. In contrast, cortisol in combination with the pro-inflammatory agents has a synergistic effect on IL-10 expression, an anti-inflammatory molecule, suggesting that the activation of certain macrophage functions that lead to the resolution of inflammation occurs in fish macrophages in response to cortisol treatment.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 10/2010; 30(1):215-23. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The clinical success of the nucleoside analogs 5-aza-cytidine (5-azaC) and 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) as DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors has spurred interest in the development of non-nucleoside inhibitors with improved pharmacologic and safety profiles. Because DNMT catalysis features attack of cytosine bases by an enzyme thiol group, we tested whether disulfiram (DSF), a thiol-reactive compound with known clinical safety, demonstrated DNMT inhibitory activity. Inhibition of DNMT1 activity by DSF was assessed using methyltransferase activity assays with recombinant DNMT1. Next, prostate cancer cell lines were exposed to DSF and assessed for: i) reduction of global 5-methyl cytosine ((5me)C) content using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); ii) gene-specific promoter demethylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP); and iii) gene-reactivation by real-time RT-PCR. DSF was also tested for growth inhibition using prostate cancer cell lines propagated in vitro in cell culture and in vivo as xenografts in nude mice. Disulfiram showed a dose-dependent inhibition of DNMT1 activity on a hemimethylated DNA substrate. In prostate cancer cells in culture, DSF exposure led to reduction of global genomic (5me)C content, increase in unmethylated APC and RARB gene promoters, and associated re-expression of these genes, but did not significantly alter prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression. DSF significantly inhibited growth and clonogenic survival of prostate cancer cell lines in culture and showed a trend for reduced growth of prostate cancer xenografts. Disulfiram is a non-nucleoside DNMT1 inhibitor that can reduce global (5me)C content, reactivate epigenetically silenced genes, and significantly inhibit growth in prostate cancer cell lines.The Prostate 03/2011; 71(4):333-43. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cytokines play essential roles in innate and adaptive immunity. However, excess cytokines or dysregulation of cytokine signaling will cause a variety of diseases, including allergies, autoimmune diseases, inflammation, and cancer. Most cytokines utilize the so-called Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription pathway. This pathway is negatively regulated by various mechanisms including suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. SOCS proteins bind to JAK or cytokine receptors, thereby suppressing further signaling events. Especially, suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3 are strong inhibitors of JAKs, because these two contain kinase inhibitory region at the N-terminus. Studies using conditional knockout mice have shown that SOCS proteins are key physiological as well as pathological regulators of immune homeostasis. Recent studies have also demonstrated that SOCS1 and SOCS3 are important regulators of helper T cell differentiation and functions. This review focuses on the roles of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in T cell mediated inflammatory diseases.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2012; 3:20.