Troponins and natriuretic peptides in the monitoring of anthracycline cardiotoxicity.
ABSTRACT Anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity has a substantial negative impact on long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The detection of cardiotoxicity is currently based on echocardiography or radionuclide angiography. However, as they depict only the final outcome of myocardial injury in terms of reduced heart contractility, heart specific biomarkers of myocardial destruction or dysfunction could be advantageous by allowing for an earlier detection of cardiotoxicity. In the present study, the usefulness of cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides, the most commonly used biomarkers of myocardial destruction and ventricular dysfunction respectively, to detect and to predict the development of anthracycline cardiotoxicity has been reviewed.
- SourceAvailable from: George A DiamondJournal of the American College of Cardiology 12/2012; 60(23):2427–2463. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiotoxic and other side effects limit the usefulness of treatments for cancer. This article is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and other databases, and on the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology, the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany, and the European Society of Medical Oncology. Prospective studies have shown that some treatments for cancer are cardiotoxic. The heart damage that they cause can manifest itself as arrhythmia, arterial hypertension, thromboembolism, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, or heart failure. It has been observed that potentially lethal complications can arise as late as 40 years after treatment of the original cancer. The anthracycline drug doxorubicin, given in a dose of 500 mg/m2 of body surface area, has been found to cause cardiac complications in 4-36% of the patients treated with it. Trastuzumab and epirubicin cause dose-limiting cardiac events in 1.7-5% of patients, depending on the dosage. Paclitaxel causes bradycardia, intracardiac conduction block, or arrhythmia in 0.5% of patients. 18% of patients treated with sunitimib or sorafenib have clinical manifestations relating to the heart (angina pectoris, dyspnea). 5-fluorouracil can cause angina pectoris at the beginning of treatment and rarely causes myocardial infarction. Cardiac radiation therapy, a form of treatment practiced in earlier decades, can cause cardiac complications 20 years after the event. The opportunity to prevent cardiac complications of anthracycline drugs with dexrazoxane is decidedly limited, but initial studies have shown that treatment with beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors lessens the likelihood of cardiotoxic side effects. When cardiac complications arise, the generally applicable rules for the treatment of each type of cardiac problem should be followed. The oncological treatment protocol should be adjusted or switched to one that is less damaging to the heart. Treating physicians need to be thoroughly acquainted with the cardiotoxic effects of anti-cancer drugs so that they can diagnose them early on and avoid jeopardizing the overall success of treatment.Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 03/2014; 111(10):161-8. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multi-modality cancer treatments that include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted agents are highly effective therapies. Their use, especially in combination, is limited by the risk of significant cardiac toxicity. The current paradigm for minimizing cardiac morbidity, based on serial cardiac function monitoring, is suboptimal. An alternative approach based on biomarker testing, has emerged as a promising adjunct and a potential substitute to routine echocardiography. Biomarkers, most prominently cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides, have been evaluated for their ability to describe the risk of potential cardiac dysfunction in clinically asymptomatic patients. Early rises in cardiac troponin concentrations have consistently predicted the risk and severity of significant cardiac events in patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Biomarkers represent a novel, efficient, and robust clinical decision tool for the management of cancer therapy-induced cardiotoxicity. This article aims to review the clinical evidence that supports the use of established biomarkers such as cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides, as well as emerging data on proposed biomarkers.Frontiers in oncology. 01/2014; 4:277.