Hydrolysis of coagulation factors by circulating IgG is associated with a reduced risk for chronic allograft nephropathy in renal transplanted patients.
ABSTRACT Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), a major cause of late allograft failure, is characterized by a progressive decline in graft function correlated with tissue destruction. Uncontrolled activation of the coagulation cascade by the stressed endothelium of the graft is thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of CAN. In this study, we demonstrate that circulating IgG from renal-transplanted patients are endowed with hydrolytic properties toward coagulation factors VIII and IX, but fail to hydrolyze factor VII and prothrombin. The hydrolytic activity of IgG was reliably quantified by the measure of the hydrolysis of a fluorescent synthetic substrate for serine proteases: proline-phenylalanine-arginine-methylcoumarinamide (PFR-MCA). A retrospective case-control study indicated that an elevated hydrolysis rate of PFR-MCA by circulating IgG correlated with the absence of CAN lesions on protocol graft biopsy performed 2 years posttransplantation. We propose that circulating hydrolytic IgG may counterbalance the procoagulation state conferred by the activated endothelium by disrupting the amplification loop of thrombin generation which is dependent on factors VIII and IX. Interestingly, low rates of PFR-MCA hydrolysis, measured 3 mo posttransplantation, were predictive of CAN at 2 years down the lane. These data suggest that PFR-MCA hydrolysis may be used as a prognosis marker for CAN in renal-transplanted patients.
SourceAvailable from: Bharath Wootla[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Catalytic antibodies are immunoglobulins endowed with enzymatic activity. Catalytic IgG has been reported in several human autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In particular, low levels of catalytic IgG have been proposed as a prognostic marker for chronic allograft rejection in patients undergoing kidney transplant. Kidney allograft is a treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal failure. Intravenous immunoglobulins, a therapeutic pool of human IgG, is used in patients with donor-specific antibodies, alone or in conjunction with other immunosuppressive treatments, to desensitize the patients and prevent the development of acute graft rejection. Here, we followed for a period of 24 months the levels of catalytic IgG towards the synthetic peptide Pro-Phe-Arg-methylcoumarinimide in a large cohort of patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Twenty-four percent of the patients received IVIg at the time of transplantation. Our results demonstrate a marked reduction in levels of catalytic antibodies in all patients three months following kidney transplant. The decrease was significantly pronounced in patients receiving adjunct IVIg therapy. The results suggests that prevention of acute graft rejection using intravenous immunoglobulins induces a transient reduction in the levels of catalytic IgG, thus potentially jeopardizing the use of levels of catalytic antibodies as a prognosis marker for chronic allograft nephropathy.PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e70731. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0070731 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Solid organs have been transplanted for decades. Since the improvement in graft selection and in medical and surgical procedures, the likelihood of graft function after 1 year is now close to 90%. Nonetheless even well-matched recipients continue to need medications for the rest of their lives hence adverse side effects and enhanced morbidity. Understanding Immune rejection mechanisms, is of increasing importance since the greater use of living-unrelated donors and genetically unmatched individuals. Chronic rejection is devoted to T-cells, however the role of B-cells in rejection has been appreciated recently by the observation that B-cell depletion improve graft survival. By contrast however, B-cells can be beneficial to the grafted tissue. This protective effect is secondary to either the secretion of protective antibodies or the induction of B-cells that restrain excessive inflammatory responses, chiefly by local provision of IL-10, or inhibit effector T-cells by direct cellular interactions. As a proof of concept B-cell-mediated infectious transplantation tolerance could be achieved in animal models, and evidence emerged that the presence of such B-cells in transplanted patients correlate with a favorable outcome. Among these populations, regulatory B-cells constitute a recently described population. These cells may develop as a feedback mechanism to prevent uncontrolled reactivity to antigens and inflammatory stimuli. The difficult task for the clinician, is to quantify the respective ratios and functions of "tolerant" vs. effector B-cells within a transplanted organ, at a given time point in order to modulate B-cell-directed therapy. Several receptors at the B-cell membrane as well as signaling molecules, can now be targeted for this purpose. Understanding the temporal expansion of regulatory B-cells in grafted patients and the stimuli that activate them will help in the future to implement specific strategies aimed at fighting chronic allograft rejection.Frontiers in Immunology 12/2013; 4:444. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00444
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ABSTRACT: The major complication of the substitutive treatment of haemophilia A (HA) is the development of antifactor VIII (FVIII) antibodies. Most of these antibodies neutralize FVIII procoagulant activity, and are identified as FVIII inhibitor. A subgroup of these antibodies, 'catalytic antibodies', catalyses the FVIII hydrolysis. We investigated the frequency and the activity of catalytic antibodies, according to the phenotype of HA and the presence or absence of FVIII inhibitor. IgG from 16 patients with inhibitor and 17 patients without inhibitor were purified. Rates of FVIII hydrolysis and inhibitor titres were evaluated. Anti-FVIII catalytic antibodies were detected in 63.6% of patients with HA, irrespective of the HA phenotype and the presence of FVIII inhibitor. The frequency was significantly higher for severe HA patients (73.3%) and patients with inhibitor (87.5%), but their FVIII-proteolytic activity was not significantly different from patients with mild or moderate HA and patients without inhibitor. The evolution of both catalytic and inhibitory activities was studied for 11 patients with FVIII inhibitor. We observed two profiles. In the profile 1, 18.2% of patients, the catalytic activity and the inhibitor titre coevolved. In contrast, a dissociated evolution of these two parameters was observed in 72.8% patients in profile 2. These data confirm the importance of anti-FVIII catalytic activity in patients with severe, moderate and mild HA. Interestingly, most of the patients presented a dissociated profile, suggesting that anti-FVIII antibodies might not systematically act as FVIII inhibitors.Haemophilia 12/2012; 19(2). DOI:10.1111/hae.12067 · 2.47 Impact Factor