Article

Targeting primary care referrals to smoking cessation clinics does not improve quit rates: implementing evidence-based interventions into practice.

VA Greater Los Angeles HSR&D Center of Excellence, Sepulveda VA Ambulatory Care Center (152), 16111 Plummer Street, Sepulveda, CA 91343, USA.
Health Services Research (Impact Factor: 2.49). 06/2008; 43(5 Pt 1):1637-61. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2008.00865.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate the impact of a locally adapted evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) approach to implementation of smoking cessation guidelines into routine practice.
We used patient questionnaires, practice surveys, and administrative data in Veterans Health Administration (VA) primary care practices across five southwestern states.
In a group-randomized trial of 18 VA facilities, matched on size and academic affiliation, we evaluated intervention practices' abilities to implement evidence-based smoking cessation care following structured evidence review, local priority setting, quality improvement plan development, practice facilitation, expert feedback, and monitoring. Control practices received mailed guidelines and VA audit-feedback reports as usual care.
To represent the population of primary care-based smokers, we randomly sampled and screened 36,445 patients to identify and enroll eligible smokers at baseline (n=1,941) and follow-up at 12 months (n=1,080). We used computer-assisted telephone interviewing to collect smoking behavior, nicotine dependence, readiness to change, health status, and patient sociodemographics. We used practice surveys to measure structure and process changes, and administrative data to assess population utilization patterns.
Intervention practices adopted multifaceted EBQI plans, but had difficulty implementing them, ultimately focusing on smoking cessation clinic referral strategies. While attendance rates increased (p<.0001), we found no intervention effect on smoking cessation.
EBQI stimulated practices to increase smoking cessation clinic referrals and try other less evidence-based interventions that did not translate into improved quit rates at a population level.

0 Followers
 · 
75 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In an attempt to guide planning and optimize outcomes for population-specific smoking cessation efforts, the present study examined smoking prevalence and the demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics associated with smoking among a sample of Veterans Affairs primary care patients with probable major depression. Survey data were collected between 2003 and 2004 from 761 patients with probable major depression who attended one of 10 geographically dispersed VA primary care clinics. Current smoking prevalence was 39.8%. Relative to nonsmokers with probable major depression, bivariate comparisons revealed that current smokers had higher depression severity, drank more heavily, and were more likely to have comorbid PTSD. Smokers with probable major depression were also more likely than nonsmokers with probable major depression to have missed a health care appointment and to have missed medication doses in the previous 5months. Smokers were more amenable than non-smokers to depression treatment and diagnosis, and they reported more frequent visits to a mental health specialist and less social support. Alcohol abuse and low levels of social support were significant concurrent predictors of smoking status in controlled multivariable logistic regression. In conclusion, smoking prevalence was high among primary care patients with probable major depression, and these smokers reported a range of psychiatric and psychosocial characteristics with potential to complicate systems-level smoking cessation interventions.
    Addictive behaviors 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.030 · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Healthcare systems and their primary care practices are redesigning to achieve goals identified in Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) models such as Veterans Affairs (VA)'s Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACT). Implementation of these models, however, requires major transformation. Evidence-Based Quality Improvement (EBQI) is a multi-level approach for supporting organizational change and innovation spread. To describe EBQI as an approach for promoting VA's PACT and to assess initial implementation of planned EBQI elements. Descriptive. Regional and local interdisciplinary clinical leaders, patient representatives, Quality Council Coordinators, practicing primary care clinicians and staff, and researchers from six demonstration site practices in three local healthcare systems in one VA region. EBQI promotes bottom-up local innovation and spread within top-down organizational priorities. EBQI innovations are supported by a research-clinical partnership, use continuous quality improvement methods, and are developed in regional demonstration sites. We developed a logic model for EBQI for PACT (EBQI-PACT) with inputs, outputs, and expected outcomes. We describe implementation of logic model outputs over 18 months, using qualitative data from 84 key stakeholders (104 interviews from two waves) and review of study documents. Nearly all implementation elements of the EBQI-PACT logic model were fully or partially implemented. Elements not fully achieved included patient engagement in Quality Councils (4/6) and consistent local primary care practice interdisciplinary leadership (4/6). Fourteen of 15 regionally approved innovation projects have been completed, three have undergone initial spread, five are prepared to spread, and two have completed toolkits that have been pretested in two to three sites and are now ready for external spread. EBQI-PACT has been feasible to implement in three participating healthcare systems in one VA region. Further development of methods for engaging patients in care design and for promoting interdisciplinary leadership is needed.
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 04/2014; 29(S2). DOI:10.1007/s11606-013-2703-y · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The primary care sector represents the linchpin of many health systems. However, the translation of evidence-based practices into patient care can be difficult, particularly during healthcare reform. This can have significant implications for patients, their communities, and the public purse. This is aptly demonstrated in the area of sexual health. The aim of this paper is to determine what works to facilitate evidence-based sexual healthcare within the primary care sector. 431 clinicians (214 general practitioners and 217 practice nurses) in New South Wales, Australia, were surveyed about their awareness, their use, the perceived impact, and the factors that hindered the use of six resources to promote sexual healthcare. Descriptive statistics were calculated from the responses to the closed survey items, while responses to open-ended item were thematically analyzed. All six resources were reported to improve the delivery of evidence-based sexual healthcare. Two resources -- both double-sided A4-placards -- had the greatest reach and use. Barriers that hindered resource-use included limited time, limited perceived need, and limited access to, or familiarity with the resources. Furthermore, the reorganization of the primary care sector and the removal of particular medical benefits scheme items may have hampered clinician capacity to translate evidence-based practices into patient care. Findings reveal: (1) the translation of evidence-based practices into patient care is viable despite reform; (2) the potential value of a multi-modal approach; (3) the dissemination of relatively inexpensive resources might influence clinical practices; and (4) reforms to governance and/or funding arrangements may widen the void between evidence-based practices and patient care.
    BMC Health Services Research 11/2013; 13(1):490. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-13-490 · 1.66 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
14 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014