Article

Ab Initio and in Situ Comparison of Caffeine, Triclosan, and Triclocarban as Indicators of Sewage-Derived Microbes in Surface Waters

Johns Hopkins University Center for Water and Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.48). 05/2008; 42(9):3335-40. DOI: 10.1021/es702591r
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Three organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) were evaluated in theory and practice for their potential to trace sewage-derived microbial contaminants in surface waters. The underlying hypothesis was that hydrophobic OWCs outperform caffeine as a chemical tracer, due to their sorptive association with suspended microorganisms representing particulate organic carbon (POC). Modeling from first principles (ab initio) of OWC sorption to POC under environmental conditions suggested an increasing predictive power: caffeine (0.2% sorbed) < triclosan (9-60%; pH 6-9) < triclocarban (76%). Empirical evidence was obtained via analysis of surface water from three watersheds in a rural-to-urban gradient in Baltimore, MD. Mass spectrometric OWC detections were correlated to microbial plate counts for 40 monitoring sites along 14 streams, including multiple chronic sewage release sites and the local wastewater treatment plant. Consistent with ab initio calculations, correlation analyses of 104 observations for fecal coliforms, enterococci, and Escherichia coli in natural surface waters showed that the particle-active antimicrobials triclosan and triclocarban (R2 range, 0.45-0.55) were indeed superior to caffeine (0.16-0.37) for tracking of microbial indicators. It is concluded that chemical monitoring of microbial risks is more effective when using hydrophobic OWCs such as triclosan and triclocarban in place of, or in conjunction with, the traditional marker caffeine.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Kristen E Gibson, Mar 30, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
109 Views
  • Source
    • "[1]. However, the utilisation of E. coli as an indicator species can be time consuming as culturing techniques can take between 18 to 96 hours [2] and the relatively short survival time of faecal coliforms in the environment represents further limitation [3], as the relatively fast die-off of E. coli can be seen as a "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A green, rapid and sensitive high performance anion-exchange chromatographic (HPAEC) method for the determination of saccharin in environmental water samples is reported. A linear range of 5 µg/L to 28.2 µg/mL was found with a theoretical limit of detection of 5 µg/L based on a signal-to-noise ratio of three. No interferences were seen for sodium cyclamate, acesulfame K, aspartame, nitrite, nitrate and chlorate. Following a simple filtration sample pre-treatment a percentage recovery of 92.9 % and an associated coefficient of variation of 3.8 % was found for a sample fortified with 28.2 ng/mL saccharin. Separation was achieved within 2.5 minutes using a SAP 100 mm ⇥ 4.6 mm, 8 µm strong anion exchange analytical column with a mobile phase of 0.1 M NaCl at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The develop method avoids the use of potentially environmentally hazardous reagents and minimises the production of waste.
    06/2014; 1(1):17-25. DOI:10.15764/ACHE.2014.01002
  • Source
    • "Among a wide range of compounds, caffeine has been one of the most studied compounds and most frequently indicated as a good chemical marker of anthropogenic contamination of surface waters by wastewaters, mainly due to its correlation of average per capita consumptions (Buerge et al., 2003; Buerge et al., 2006), microbiological markers (Kurissery et al., 2012; Peeler et al., 2006), and nitrate (Seiler et al., 1999). Currently, other emerging contaminants as human pharmaceuticals have been studied as potential indicators of contamination by the discharge of domestic sewage (Clara et al., 2004; Gasser et al., 2010; Gasser et al., 2011; Vystavna et al., 2012; Young et al., 2008). More recently artificial low-calorie sweeteners have been pointed as good markers of wastewater contamination (Harwood, 2014; Robertson et al., 2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The use of chemical markers of undoubted anthropogenic sources for surface freshwater contamination by wastewaters was evaluated employing correlations observed between measured physico-chemical parameters as the electrical conductivity and the concentration of different emerging organic compounds. During the period from April/2011 to April/2012 spatial-temporal variations and contamination patterns of two rivers (Piraí and Jundiaí rivers), São Paulo state, Brazil were evaluated. Seven physico-chemical parameters and concentrations of different classes of emerging contaminants were determined in samples collected in seven field campaigns. The high linear correlation coefficients obtained for the compounds diclofenac (r=0.9085), propanolol (r=0.8994), ibuprofen (r=0.8720) and atenolol (r=0.7811) with electrical conductivity, also corroborated by principal component analysis (PCA), point to the potential use of these compounds as markers of investigated surface water contamination by wastewaters. Due to specific inputs, these environmental markers showed very good effectiveness for the identification and differentiation of water body contamination by discharges of treated and untreated urban sewage.
    Science of The Total Environment 06/2014; 484:19–26. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.02.135 · 4.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "It is known that there is a long list of biocides used in various household products; therefore, it would be desirable to have a chemical indicator for all these biocides in terms of monitoring cost (Drewes et al., 2013). Triclosan has been used as a potential indicator to track household sewage contamination (Young et al., 2008). Halden and Paull predicted the concentrations of triclocarban in US streams by using an empirical correlation between triclosan and triclocarban (Halden and Paull, 2005). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biocides are widely formulated in household and personal care products. We investigated the distribution and ecological risks of 16 household biocides in aquatic environments of a highly urbanized region in South China, evaluated triclosan as a chemical indicator for this group of household chemicals, and proposed a novel approach to predict the environmental occurrence and fate of these household biocides by using triclosan usage data and a level-III fugacity model. Eleven biocides were quantitatively detected at concentrations up to 264 ± 15.3 ng/L for climbazole in surface water, and up to 5649 ± 748 ng/g for triclocarban in sediment of four rivers in the region. The distribution of biocides in the aquatic environments was significantly correlated with environmental variables such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus and population. Domestic sewage in the region was the dominant pollution source for most biocides such as azole fungicides (fluconazole, climbazole, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and carbendazim) and disinfectants (triclosan and triclocarban). Preliminary risk assessment showed high ecological risks posed by two biocides carbendazim and triclosan in river waters. Mostly important, triclosan was found to be a reliable chemical indicator to surrogate household biocides both in water and sediment based on the correlation analysis. In addition, the fugacity modeling could provide simulated concentrations comparable to the monitoring results. Therefore, with the usage data of the chemical indicator triclosan and correlation formula with other biocides, this model can be applied for predicting the occurrence and fate of various household biocides in a catchment.
    Water Research 04/2014; 58C:269-279. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2014.03.072 · 5.32 Impact Factor
Show more