Approaches to establish thresholds for major food allergens and for gluten in food.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, Maryland 20740-3835, USA.
Journal of food protection (Impact Factor: 1.8). 05/2008; 71(5):1043-88.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: For most allergenic foods, limited availability of threshold dose information within the population restricts the advice on action levels of unintended allergenic foods which should trigger advisory labelling on packaged foods. The objective of this paper is to provide guidance for selecting an optimal sample size for threshold dosing studies for major allergenic foods and to identify factors influencing the accuracy of estimation. A simulation study was performed to evaluate the effects of sample size and dosing schemes on the accuracy of the threshold distribution curve. The relationships between sample size, dosing scheme and the employed statistical distribution on the one hand and accuracy of estimation on the other hand were obtained. It showed that the largest relative gains in accuracy are obtained when sample size increases from N = 20 to N = 60. Moreover, it showed that the EuroPrevall dosing scheme is a useful start, but that it may need revision for a specific allergen as more data become available, because a proper allocation of the dosing steps is important. The results may guide risk assessors in minimum sample sizes for new studies and in the allocation of proper dosing schemes for allergens in provocation studies.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 05/2014; 70. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2014.05.001 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have emerged to reduce/eliminate the allergenicity of peanuts or to better treat peanutallergic individuals. In this review, we give an overview of peanut allergy, with a focus on peanut proteins, including the impact of thermal processing on peanut protein structure and detection in food matrices. We discuss several strategies currently being investigated to mitigate peanut allergy, including genetic engineering, novel processing strategies, and immunotherapy in terms of mechanisms, recent research, and limitations. All strategies are discussed with considerations for both peanut-allergic individuals and the numerous industries/government agencies involved throughout peanut production and utilization. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology Volume 5 is February 28, 2014. Please see for revised estimates.
    Review of Food Science and Technology 01/2014; DOI:10.1146/annurev-food-030713-092443 · 5.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Food allergy appears to be on the rise with the current mainstay of treatment centred on allergen avoidance. Mandatory allergen labelling has improved the safety of food for allergic consumers. However an additional form of voluntary labelling (termed precautionary allergen labelling) has evolved on a wide range of packaged goods, in a bid by manufacturers to minimise risk to customers, and the negative impact on business that might result from exposure to trace amounts of food allergen present during cross-contamination during production. This has resulted in near ubiquitous utilisation of a multitude of different precautionary allergen labels with subsequent confusion amongst many consumers as to their significance. The global nature of food production and manufacturing makes harmonisation of allergen labelling regulations across the world a matter of increasing importance. Addressing inconsistencies across countries with regards to labelling legislation, as well as improvement or even banning of precautionary allergy labelling are both likely to be significant steps forward in improved food safety for allergic families. This article outlines the current status of allergen labelling legislation around the world and reviews the value of current existing precautionary allergen labelling for the allergic consumer. We strongly urge for an international framework to be considered to help roadmap a solution to the weaknesses of the current systems, and discuss the role of legislation in facilitating this.
    World Allergy Organization Journal 04/2014; 7(1):10. DOI:10.1186/1939-4551-7-10


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May 30, 2014