Adolescents with insomnia and substance abuse: consequences and comorbidities.
ABSTRACT Adolescents have high rates of sleep disorders and substance abuse, both of which have been associated with deleterious effects on mood, attention, and behavior. This article reviews data on the prevalence of sleep disorders, substance abuse problems, and comorbid psychiatric conditions in the adolescent population. Studies have consistently demonstrated that the prevalence of sleep problems is under-reported in adolescents in both clinical and community samples. The bidirectional correlation between substance use and sleep disturbances is also discussed. Based on the findings presented here, the authors conclude that it is imperative to improve the detection and treatment of sleep problems in children and adolescents. By treating sleep disturbances and targeting poor sleepers with additional counseling and education regarding the risk of substance use, clinicians may be able to prevent or delay the adverse effects of addiction. At the very least, the presence of insomnia should alert clinicians to the need for further evaluation for drug and alcohol abuse.
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ABSTRACT: Shift workers-e.g., health care professionals, truck drivers, and factory workers-are forced to maintain daily cycles at odds with their natural circadian rhythms and as a consequence need to frequently readjust these cycles. This shift work-induced circadian desynchrony (CD) is associated with increased sleep disorders and with alcohol abuse. Nonetheless, it has proven difficult to model CD-induced changes in alcohol consumption in mouse models, which is an important step toward identifying the mechanisms by which CD increases alcohol intake. This study examined whether frequent changes in the light cycle could increase free access alcohol intake in a mouse line that readily consumes alcohol. Free access alcohol intake, water intake, and wheel-running activity patterns of male C57BL/6J mice were measured while the mice were maintained on a normal 12HR photoperiod for baseline data for 2 weeks. The mice were then exposed to an alternating photoperiod of 12 h and 18 h, with light onset advanced 8 h during the 18HR photoperiod. The photoperiods rotated every 3 days, for 21 days total. The repeated pattern of phase advances and delays, with a concurrent change in the length of the photoperiod, shifted mice to a pattern of intermittent alcohol drinking without altering water intake. Wheel running activity demonstrated that mice were unable to reset their behavioral clocks during CD, showing constant, low-level activity with no peak in activity at the start of the dark phase and greater activity during the morning light phase. It is possible to model CD effects on alcohol intake in C57BL/6J mice using a pattern of phase shifts and changes in the photoperiod. Using this model, we demonstrate that mice begin intermittent drinking during CD, and this increase in alcohol intake does not correlate with an increase in overall activity or in overall fluid intake.Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 02/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00009 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythm alterations have been implicated in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly those of sleep, addiction, anxiety, and mood. Circadian rhythms are known to be maintained by a set of classic clock genes that form complex mutual and self-regulatory loops. While many other genes showing rhythmic expression have been identified by genome-wide studies, their roles in circadian regulation remain largely unknown. In attempts to directly connect circadian rhythms with neuropsychiatric disorders, genetic studies have identified gene mutations associated with several rare sleep disorders or sleep-related traits. Other than that, genetic studies of circadian genes in psychiatric disorders have had limited success. As an important mediator of environmental factors and regulators of circadian rhythms, the epigenetic system may hold the key to the etiology or pathology of psychiatric disorders, their subtypes or endophenotypes. Epigenomic regulation of the circadian system and the related changes have not been thoroughly explored in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. We argue for systematic investigation of the circadian system, particularly epigenetic regulation, and its involvement in neuropsychiatric disorders to improve our understanding of human behavior and disease etiology.Neuroscience Bulletin 02/2015; 31(1):141-59. DOI:10.1007/s12264-014-1495-3 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence and health correlates of insomnia symptoms and their association with comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States.Sleep 10/2014; DOI:10.5665/sleep.4396 · 5.06 Impact Factor