To summarize the most current clinical applications of tissue engineering and their relevance to pediatric urology.
Successful clinical application of engineered bladder tissue substitutes has led to an ongoing phase II clinical trial. The use of engineered tissue substitutes in hypospadias reconstruction has also been applied clinically, but has not yet gained wide acceptance. Cell injection therapy for rhabdosphincter regeneration has shown promise in adult stress urinary incontinence patients, but its applicability to the pediatric population has not been reported. To date, engineered tissue substitutes for reconstitution of the corporal bodies of the penis have been successfully applied in animal models. Renal replacement therapy has shown progress with the clinical application of human progenitor cells in hemofiltration units, and additional studies may ultimately render the engineered intracorporeal renal replacement unit a reality.
The field of tissue engineering seeks to arm the clinician with therapeutic options that rehabilitate or reconstruct damaged organs. Recent clinical trials may transform reconstructive surgery as well as current surgical practice in patients with neurogenic bladders and urinary incontinence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering encompasses a multidisciplinary approach geared toward the development of biological substitutes designed to restore and maintain normal function in diseased or injured tissues. This article reviews the basic technology that is used to generate implantable tissue-engineered grafts in vitro that will exhibit characteristics in vivo consistent with the physiology and function of the equivalent healthy tissue. We also examine the current trends in tissue engineering designed to tailor scaffold construction, promote angiogenesis and identify an optimal seeded cell source. Finally, we describe several currently applied therapeutic modalities that use a tissue-engineered construct. While notable progress has clearly been demonstrated in this emerging field, these efforts have not yet translated into widespread clinical applicability. With continued development and innovation, there is optimism that the tremendous potential of this field will be realized.
Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada 10/2009; 3(5):403-8. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell-seeded synthetic polymer scaffolds constitute an emerging technology for urethroplastic applications. The study goal was to identify urethral proteins appropriate for cell attachment and optimize their adsorption onto two types of scaffolds: porous poly(ester urethane) with a poly(caprolactone) soft segment (PEU-PCL) and poly-(96% L/4% D)-lactic acid (P96L/4DLA). Specimens from eight men undergoing urethral reconstruction for stricture diseases were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. Type I collagen, type IV collagen and vitronectin were detected at the interface between the epithelium and its basement membrane. Electrophoresis confirmed that polypeptide chains in the starting material were also present in fractions eluted from adsorbed scaffolds. Over a 4 week incubation assay, only vitronectin exhibited 100% retention levels for all scaffolds. The saturation point for each protein on each scaffold type was determined by titration and ELISA. The collective evidence indicates the concept that vitronectin > type IV collagen > type I collagen are preferred adsorption proteins for PEU-PCL and P96L/4DLA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to examine the relationship of arterial stiffness to measures of atherosclerosis, arterial calcification, and bone mineral density (BMD); the heritability of these measures; and the degree to which they are explained by common genetic influences.
Arterial stiffening relates to arterial calcification, but this association could result from coexistent atherosclerosis. A reciprocal relationship between arterial stiffening/calcification and BMD could explain the association between cardiovascular morbidity and osteoporosis.
We examined, in 900 women from the Twins UK cohort, the relationship of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) to measures of atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickening; carotid/femoral plaque), calcification (calcified plaque [CP]; aortic calcification by computed tomography, performed in subsample of 40 age-matched women with low and high cfPWV), and BMD.
The cfPWV independently correlated with CP but not with intima-media thickness or noncalcified plaque. Total aortic calcium, determined by computed tomography, was significantly greater in subjects with high cfPWV (median Agatston score 450.4 compared with 63.2 arbitrary units in subjects with low cfPWV, p = 0.001). There was no independent association between cfPWV and BMD. Adjusted heritability estimates of cfPWV and CP were 0.38 (95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.59) and 0.61 (95% confidence interval: 0.04 to 0.83), respectively. Shared genetic factors accounted for 92% of the observed correlation (0.38) between cfPWV and CP.
These results suggest that the association between increased arterial stiffness and the propensity of the arterial wall to calcify is explained by a common genetic etiology and is independent of noncalcified atheromatous plaque and independent of BMD.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2011; 57(13):1480-6. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2010.09.079 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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