The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia's experience with donation after cardiac death
ABSTRACT To describe our experience with pediatric donation after cardiac death.
Retrospective chart review of all cases of donation after cardiac death from 1995 to 2005.
The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia pediatric intensive care unit.
Twelve patients who were pediatric organ donors after cardiac death.
Charts for 12 patients were located, and donation after cardiac death was confirmed. There were two females and ten males. Patient age ranged from 1 to 17 yrs (mean 8 yrs). Four patients had severe traumatic brain injury, and eight patients had hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. The organs procured were 24 kidneys, eight livers, four lungs, and one pancreas. The organs transplanted were 23 kidneys, four livers, and one pancreas. Ten of 12 cases of withdrawal of life-sustaining support occurred in the operating room area; the other two occurred in the holding area and the postanesthesia care unit. Children received a wide range of medications at the time of extubation. No neuromuscular blockers were used. The time of extubation to time of death ranged from 4 mins to 30 mins, with a mean of 14.5 mins. Death was declared based on cardiac asystole confirmed by auscultation and transthoracic impedance, with organ procurement initiated 5 mins later. Regarding who initiated conversation about donation after cardiac death, nine cases were family initiated, one case was physician initiated, and in two there was a collaborative approach with the physician and representative from the organ procurement organization. Of the organs transplanted, all organs other than one kidney and one split liver graft were functioning at 1 yr post-transplant.
Pediatric donation after cardiac death can be performed successfully; its impact on end-of-life care and bereavement needs further investigation.
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ABSTRACT: Pediatric liver transplantation (LT) is one of the most successful solid organ transplants with long-term survival more than 80%. Many aspects have contributed to improve survival, especially advancements in pre-, peri- and post-transplant management. The development of new surgical techniques, such as split-LT and the introduction of living related LT, has extended LT to small infants. Progress in the last 30 years has also been characterized by the introduction of calcineurin inhibitors. One problem remains the lack of donors. Donation after cardiac death offers a new possibility to increase the pool of potential donors. In children with acute liver failure, increasing interest has centered on the possibility of providing temporary liver support based on extracorporeal devices or hepatocyte transplantation. Similarly, hepatocyte transplantation offers new perspective in children with metabolic failure. As long-term survival increases, attention has now focused on the quality of life achieved by children undergoing LT.Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology 09/2013; 7(7):629-41. DOI:10.1586/17474124.2013.832486 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Over 96 000 patients await kidney transplantation in the United States, and 35 000 more are wait-listed annually. The demand for donor kidneys far outweighs supply, resulting in significant waiting list morbidity and mortality. We sought to identify potential kidney donors among newborns because en bloc kidney transplantation donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) may broaden the donor pool.METHODS:We reviewed discharges from our 84-bed NICU between November 2002 and October 2012 and identified all deaths. The mode of death among potential organ donors (weight ≥1.8 kg) was recorded. Patients undergoing withdrawal of life support were further evaluated for DCDD potential. After excluding patients with medical contraindications, those with warm ischemic time (WIT) less than 120 minutes were characterized as potential kidney donors.RESULTS:There were 11 201 discharges. Of 609 deaths, 359 patients weighed ≥1.8 kg and 159 died after planned withdrawal of life support. The exact time of withdrawal could not be determined for 2 patients, and 100 had at least 1 exclusion criterion. Of the remaining patients, 42 to 57 infants were potential en bloc kidney donors depending on acceptance threshold for WIT. Applying a 40% to 70% consent rate range would yield 1.7 to 4 newborn DCDD donors per year.CONCLUSIONS:A neonatal DCDD kidney program at our institution could provide 2 to 4 paired kidneys for en bloc transplantation each year. Implementing a DCDD kidney donation program in NICUs could add a new source of donors and increase the number of kidneys available for transplantation.PEDIATRICS 12/2013; 133(1). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-2002 · 5.30 Impact Factor
Article: Kidney donation after cardiac death.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is continuing disparity between demand for and supply of kidneys for transplantation. This review describes the current state of kidney donation after cardiac death (DCD) and provides recommendations for a way forward. The conversion rate for potential DCD donors varies from 40%-80%. Compared to controlled DCD, uncontrolled DCD is more labour intensive, has a lower conversion rate and a higher discard rate. The super-rapid laparotomy technique involving direct aortic cannulation is preferred over in situ perfusion in controlled DCD donation and is associated with lower kidney discard rates, shorter warm ischaemia times and higher graft survival rates. DCD kidneys showed a 5.73-fold increase in the incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) and a higher primary non function rate compared to donation after brain death kidneys, but the long term graft function is equivalent between the two. The cold ischaemia time is a controllable factor that significantly influences the outcome of allografts, for example, limiting it to < 12 h markedly reduces DGF. DCD kidneys from donors < 50 function like standard criteria kidneys and should be viewed as such. As the majority of DCD kidneys are from controlled donation, incorporation of uncontrolled donation will expand the donor pool. Efforts to maximise the supply of kidneys from DCD include: implementing organ recovery from emergency department setting; improving family consent rate; utilising technological developments to optimise organs either prior to recovery from donors or during storage; improving organ allocation to ensure best utility; and improving viability testing to reduce primary non function.06/2012; 1(3):79-91. DOI:10.5527/wjn.v1.i3.79