Implications and potential applications of bactericidal fullerene water suspensions: effect of nC(60) concentration, exposure conditions and shelf life

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA.
Water Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 1.11). 05/2008; 57(10):1533-8. DOI: 10.2166/wst.2008.282
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Stable fullerene water suspensions (nC(60)) exhibited potent antibacterial activity to physiologically different bacteria in low-salts media over a wide range of exposure conditions. Antibacterial activity was observed in the presence or absence of light or oxygen, and increased with both exposure time and dose. The activity was also influenced by the nC(60) storage conditions and by the age of the buckminsterfullerene (C(60)) used to make nC(60). These results reflect the potential impact of nC(60) on the health of aquatic ecosystems and suggest novel alternatives for disinfection and microbial control.

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    • "Results of the studies indicate that the level of antimicrobial effects depends on a specific derivative of C 60 fullerene, on a selected testing organism and on environmental conditions (pH, electric charge and salinity). Negative effects of C 60 fullerene and its derivatives on specific groups of living organisms could be used for biocide purposes in water treatment [10] or decontamination. Therefore, we have conducted experiments in which we wanted to evaluate potential biocide effects of C 60 fullerene and its derivatives on selected microorganisms. "
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    ABSTRACT: The contribution deals with preparation of C 60 fullerene derivatives (oxo derivative, bromo derivative, hydrolyzed bromoderivative, bromo-chloro derivative), their identification and pilot testing of their biological effects on unicellular organisms. The contribution describes effects of C 60 fullerene derivatives, both on prokaryotic organisms (bacteria, cyanobacteria) and eukaryotic organisms (algae) and assesses their potential use as biocides.
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    • "Studies on the antibacterial activity by aqueous suspensions of fullerenes (Sayes et al., 2005) suggested that the degree of toxicity to E. coli was linked to production of ROS. Contrarily, it has also been suggested that the FWS of fullerenes, nC 60 exerts ROS-independent oxidative stress in bacteria, with evidence of protein oxidation, changes in cell membrane potential, and interruption of cellular respiration (Lyon et al., 2008). Though pristine C 60 is non-toxic to the cells (Levi et al., 2006), FWS (polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/C 60 , gamma-cyclodextrin (gamma-CD)/C 60 , and nano-C 60 ) and fullerenols (C 60 (OH) 12, C 60 (OH) 36.8H 2 O, and C 60 (OH) 44.8H 2 O) have been found to be toxic to six kinds of bacteria and two kinds of fungi (Aoshima et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Among the factors influencing soil quality, biological indicators are reported as critically important because soil organisms directly influence soil ecosystem processes, especially the decomposition of soil organic matter and the cycling of nutrients. Hence, any factor that affects soil microbial biomass, activity and populations would necessarily affect soil quality and sustainability. Presently, a staggering number of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) employed for industrial and environmental applications or formed as by-products of human activity are finding their way into soils. Common ENPs include the metal ENPs (elemental Ag, Au, Fe etc.), fullerenes (grouping Buckminster fullerenes, CNTs, nanocones etc.), metal oxides (TiO2, CuO, FeO2, ZnO, Al2O3, SiO2 etc.), complex compounds (Co-Zn-Fe oxide), quantum dots often coated with a polymer e.g. cadmium-selenide (CdSe) and organic polymers (dendrimers, polystyrene, etc.). The antimicrobial activity of these ENPs has been extensively studied with human pathogenic bacteria. Similarly, studies also exist on the affect of ENPs on beneficial microbes in vitro under controlled conditions. But very little information is available on how these ENPs affect microbial communities in soil under field conditions. The few published literature does suggest that among the ENPs, fullerenes and their derivatives are less toxic, while small size metal and metal oxide ENPs are detrimental to soil microbial communities. However, under field conditions, soil organic matter and related components like humic and fulvic acids could possibly negate the toxic effects of these ENPs through various mechanisms. Also, the resistance and resilience of soil microbial communities to such perturbations cannot be discounted. The paper also stresses the need for more information on interaction of ENPs with soil microorganisms under field conditions.
    Geoderma 03/2012; 173-174:19-27. DOI:10.1016/j.geoderma.2011.12.018 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    • "A number of nanoparticulate materials like chitosan (Qi et al. 2004), silver (Kim et al. 2008), fullerene (nC 60 ) (Lyon et al. 2008) have been reported to exhibit microbicidal effects. The activities of metal oxides in synergism with light irradiation are however significantly high. "
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing water pollution by microbes has become a source of serious health concern across the globe. Production of potentially carcinogenic disinfection by-products has marred credibility of traditional water purification techniques like chlorination. Photocatalysis has emerged as a promising alternative technique for the disinfection of water with minimal risk of harmful by-products. The process involves a wide band gap semiconductor material which, upon irradiation of light, produces electrons and holes with high redox potential to degrade organic contaminants and microbes. In this review, we analyze the research trends in photocatalytic inactivation of water borne microorganisms. This report analyzes the major factors that affect the disinfection efficiency using this process. The discussion also includes plausible mechanisms of microbial degradation as well as a kinetic model of the inactivation process. Different approaches, like doping of semiconductors or energy band engineering or plasmon coupling, have been reported for the enhancement and utilization of ambient solar light. Photocatalysis could be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly water purification technique though further research is required to enhance its efficiency with the use of solar light.
    Environmental Chemistry Letters 06/2011; 10(2):1-7. DOI:10.1007/s10311-011-0347-x · 2.57 Impact Factor
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