Combining nanoliposomal ceramide with sorafenib synergistically inhibits melanoma and breast cancer cell survival to decrease tumor development
ABSTRACT Deregulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways occurs in melanoma and breast cancer, deregulating normal cellular apoptosis and proliferation. Therapeutic cocktails simultaneously targeting these pathways could promote synergistically acting tumor inhibition. However, agents with manageable toxicity and mechanistic basis for synergy need identification. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the preclinical therapeutic efficacy and associated toxicity of combining sorafenib with nanoliposomal ceramide.
Effects of sorafenib and nanoliposomal ceramide as single and combinatorial agents were examined on cultured cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium salt assays and CalcuSyn software used to assess synergistic or additive inhibition. Western blotting measured cooperative effects on signaling pathways. Rates of proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis were measured in size- and time-matched tumors to identify mechanistic basis for inhibition. Toxicity was evaluated measuring animal weight, blood toxicity parameters, and changes in liver histology.
Sorafenib and nanoliposomal ceramide synergistically inhibited cultured cells by cooperatively targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. A 1- to 2-fold increase in cellular apoptosis and 3- to 4-fold decrease in cellular proliferation were observed following combination treatment compared with single agents, which caused synergistically acting inhibition. In vivo, an approximately 30% increase in tumor inhibition compared with sorafenib treatment alone and an approximately 58% reduction in tumor size compared with nanoliposomal ceramide monotherapy occurred by doubling apoptosis rates with negligible systemic toxicity.
This study shows that nanoliposomal ceramide enhances effectiveness of sorafenib causing synergistic inhibition. Thus, a foundation is established for clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of combining sorafenib with nanoliposomal ceramide for treatment of cancers.
- SourceAvailable from: Jerry Edward Chipuk[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The global incidence of melanoma has dramatically increased during the recent decades, yet the advancement of primary and adjuvant therapies has not kept a similar pace. The development of melanoma is often centered on cellular signaling that hyper-activates survival pathways, while inducing a concomitant blockade to cell death. Aberrations in cell death signaling not only promote tumor survival and enhanced metastatic potential, but also create resistance to anti-tumor strategies. Chemotherapeutic agents target melanoma tumor cells by inducing a form of cell death called apoptosis, which is governed by the BCL-2 family of proteins.The BCL-2 family is comprised of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g., BCL-2, BCL-xL, and MCL-1) and pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., BAK, BAX, and BIM), and their coordinated regulation and function are essential for optimal responses to chemotherapeutics. Here we will discuss what is currently known about the mechanisms of BCL-2 family function with a focus on the signaling pathways that maintain melanoma tumor cell survival. Importantly, we will critically evaluate the literature regarding how chemotherapeutic strategies directly impact on BCL-2 family function and offer several suggestions for future regimens to target melanoma and enhance patient survival.Frontiers in Oncology 10/2011; 1(34). DOI:10.3389/fonc.2011.00034
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ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma is a common solid tumor in children and its tumorigenicity is enhanced by the expression of survival pathways such as Akt and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that also inhibits STAT3 signaling and induces apoptosis. In this study, we will examine the efficacy of sorafenib on a human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-AS) and also investigate its possible mechanisms. After cells reached 50-60% confluence, they were treated with various concentrations of sorafenib (0, 0.1, 1, 5, 10 and 20 microM) for different periods of time. The cell viability and apoptosis were determined by MTS colorimetric assay and TUNEL, respectively. Phosphorylation of Akt1/2/3 (p-Akt1/2/3), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), STAT3 (p-STAT3), and AMP-activated protein kinase alpha subunit (p-AMPKalpha) were determined with Western blot. The results indicate that as early as 2 hours post-treatment, cell viability was significantly decreased at 10 microM concentration. In 24 hours or longer treatment groups, sorafenib at 5 microM and above significantly decreased cell viability. TUNEL assay showed a significant increased of apoptosis in 5 and 20 microM treatment groups 24 hours after treatment. Western blots showed a decrease of p-ERK1/2, p-Akt1/2/3, p-STAT3, and p-AMPKalpha expression levels in various sorafenib treatment groups. Our results indicate that sorafenib significantly decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cell line in association with down-regulation of p-ERK1/2, p-Akt, p-STAT3 survival pathways. These data suggested potential clinical application of sorafenib in the treatment of neuroblastoma.International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2010; 3(4):408-15.
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ABSTRACT: Melanocytes undergo extensive genetic changes during transformation into aggressive melanomas. These changes deregulate genes whose aberrant activity promotes the development of this disease. The phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways are two key signaling cascades that have been found to play prominent roles in melanoma development. These pathways relay extra-cellular signals via an ordered series of consecutive phosphorylation events from cell surface throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus regulating diverse cellular processes including proliferation, survival, invasion and angiogenesis. It is generally accepted that therapeutic agents would need to target these two pathways to be an effective therapy for the long-term treatment of advanced-stage melanoma patients. This review provides an overview of the PI3 kinase pathway focusing specifically on two members of the pathway, called PTEN and Akt3, which play important roles in melanoma development. Mechanisms leading to deregulation of these two proteins and therapeutic implications of targeting this signaling cascade to treat melanoma are detailed in this review.Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 06/2009; 22(4):400-19. DOI:10.1111/j.1755-148X.2009.00585.x