Combining nanoliposomal ceramide with sorafenib synergistically inhibits melanoma and breast cancer cell survival to decrease tumor development
ABSTRACT Deregulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways occurs in melanoma and breast cancer, deregulating normal cellular apoptosis and proliferation. Therapeutic cocktails simultaneously targeting these pathways could promote synergistically acting tumor inhibition. However, agents with manageable toxicity and mechanistic basis for synergy need identification. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the preclinical therapeutic efficacy and associated toxicity of combining sorafenib with nanoliposomal ceramide.
Effects of sorafenib and nanoliposomal ceramide as single and combinatorial agents were examined on cultured cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium salt assays and CalcuSyn software used to assess synergistic or additive inhibition. Western blotting measured cooperative effects on signaling pathways. Rates of proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis were measured in size- and time-matched tumors to identify mechanistic basis for inhibition. Toxicity was evaluated measuring animal weight, blood toxicity parameters, and changes in liver histology.
Sorafenib and nanoliposomal ceramide synergistically inhibited cultured cells by cooperatively targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. A 1- to 2-fold increase in cellular apoptosis and 3- to 4-fold decrease in cellular proliferation were observed following combination treatment compared with single agents, which caused synergistically acting inhibition. In vivo, an approximately 30% increase in tumor inhibition compared with sorafenib treatment alone and an approximately 58% reduction in tumor size compared with nanoliposomal ceramide monotherapy occurred by doubling apoptosis rates with negligible systemic toxicity.
This study shows that nanoliposomal ceramide enhances effectiveness of sorafenib causing synergistic inhibition. Thus, a foundation is established for clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of combining sorafenib with nanoliposomal ceramide for treatment of cancers.
SourceAvailable from: Marta Cristina Filipe Simões[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Skin cancers are by far the most common malignancy of humans, particularly in the white population. The growing incidence of cutaneous malignancies has heralded the need for multiple treatment options. Although surgical modalities remain the mainstay of treatment, new research and fresh innovation are still required to reduce morbidity and mortality. Approaches for skin cancer may pass through new technological methods instead of new molecules. The first part of this paper provides a review of the state of the art regarding skin cancer disease as well as epidemiology data. Then, it describes the gold standards of the current recommended therapies worldwide and the actual needs of these patients. This is the first paper that highlights the novel and future therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of skin malignancies, new therapeutic agents and promising technological approaches, from nanotechnology to immunotherapy.Cancer Letters 02/2015; 357(1). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2014.11.001 · 5.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Drug resistance remains the Achilles tendon undermining the success of chemotherapy. It has been recognized that success requires the identification of compounds that, when combined, lead to synergistic tumor inhibition while simultaneously minimizing systemic toxicity. However, in vivo application of such protocols is dependent on the ability to deliver the appropriate drug ratio at the tumor level. In this respect, nanotechnology-based delivery platforms, like liposomes, offer an elegant solution for the in vivo translation of such strategy. In this work, we propose the active intracellular delivery of combinations of doxorubicin and the pro-apoptotic sphingolipid, C6-ceramide, using our previously described cytosolic triggered release-enabling liposomes, targeting nucleolin with the F3 peptide. Combination of doxorubicin (DXR):C6-ceramide (C6-Cer) at 1:2 molar ratio interacted synergistically against drug resistant/triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, as well as drug sensitive MDA-MB-435S melanoma cells. Cell viability studies indicated that F3-targeted liposomes encapsulating DXR:C6-Cer 1:2 molar ratio (p[F3]DC12) performed similarly as targeted liposomal DXR (p[F3]SL), encapsulating twice the amount of DXR, at the IC50, for an incubation time of 24 h. Importantly, F3-targeted liposomes encapsulating DXR:C6-Cer 1:2 molar ratio (p[F3]DC12) enabled a cell death above 90% at 24 h of treatment against both DXR-resistant and sensitive cells, unattainable by the F3-targeted liposomal doxorubicin. Furthermore, a F3-targeted formulation encapsulating a mildly additive/antagonistic DXR:C6-Cer 1:1 molar ratio (p[F3]DC11) enabled an effect above 90% for an incubation period as short as 4 h, suggesting that delivery route at the cell level may shift the nature of drug interaction. Such activity, including the one for p[F3]DC12, induced a marked cell and nucleus swelling at similar extent, consistent with necrotic cell death. Overall, these results demonstrated that F3-targeted intracellular delivery of different DXR/C6-Cer ratios, with diversed drug interactions, enabled a highly relevant increased efficacy against chemotherapy resistant cells.Journal of Controlled Release 10/2014; 196. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.09.024 · 7.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nanoliposomal formulation of C6-ceramide, a proapoptotic sphingolipid metabolite, presents an effective way to treat malignant tumor. Here, we provide evidence that acute treatment (30 min) of melanoma and breast cancer cells with nanoliposomal C6-ceramide (NaL-C6) may suppress cell migration without inducing cell death. By employing a novel flow migration assay, we demonstrated that NaL-C6 decreased tumor extravasation under shear conditions. Compared with ghost nanoliposome, NaL-C6 triggered phosphorylation of PI3K and PKCζ and dephosphorylation of PKCα. Concomitantly, activated PKCζ translocated into cell membrane. siRNA knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of PKCζ or PI3K rescued NaL-C6-mediated suppression of tumor migration. By inducing dephosphorylation of paxillin, PKCζ was responsible for NaL-C6-mediated stress fiber depolymerization and focal adhesion disassembly in the metastatic tumor cells. PKCζ and PI3K regulated cell shear-resistant adhesion in a way that required integrin αvβ3 affinity modulation. In conclusion, we identified a novel role of acute nanoliposomal ceramide treatment in reducing integrin affinity and inhibiting melanoma metastasis by conferring PI3K and PKCζ tumor-suppressive activities.Scientific Reports 03/2015; 5:9275. DOI:10.1038/srep09275 · 5.08 Impact Factor