Changes in Tumor Metabolism as Readout for Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Kinase Inhibition by Rapamycin in Glioblastoma
ABSTRACT Inhibition of the protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is being evaluated for treatment of a variety of malignancies. However, the effects of mTOR inhibitors are cytostatic and standard size criteria do not reliably identify responding tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether response to mTOR inhibition could be assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of tumor metabolism. Experiment Design: Glucose, thymidine, and amino acid utilization of human glioma cell lines with varying degrees of sensitivity to mTOR inhibition were assessed by measuring in vitro uptake of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG), [18F]fluorothymidine ([18F]FLT), and [3H]l-tyrosine before and after treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. The tumor metabolic activity in vivo was monitored by small-animal PET of tumor-bearing mice. The mechanisms underlying changes in metabolic activity were analyzed by measuring expression and functional activity of enzymes and transporters involved in the uptake of the studied imaging probes.
In sensitive cell lines, rapamycin decreased [18F]FDG and [18F]FLT uptake by up to 65% within 24 hours after the start of therapy. This was associated with inhibition of hexokinase and thymidine kinase 1. In contrast, [3H]l-tyrosine uptake was unaffected by rapamycin. The effects of rapamycin on glucose and thymidine metabolism could be imaged noninvasively by PET. In sensitive tumors, [18F]FDG and [18F]FLT uptake decreased within 48 hours by 56 +/- 6% and 52 +/- 8%, respectively, whereas there was no change in rapamycin-resistant tumors.
These encouraging preclinical data warrant clinical trials evaluating [18F]FDG and [18F]FLT-PET for monitoring treatment with mTOR inhibitors in patients.
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary malignant brain tumor in humans. Because the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is activated in more than 88% of GBM, new drugs which target this pathway, such as the mTOR inhibitor Everolimus, are currently in clinical trials. Early tumor response to molecularly targeted treatments remains challenging to assess non-invasively, because it is often associated with tumor stasis or slower tumor growth. Innovative neuroimaging methods are therefore critically needed to provide metabolic or functional information that is indicative of targeted therapeutic action at early time points during the course of treatment.NeuroImage 07/2011; 59(1):193-201. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.034 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Noninvasive functional imaging of tumors can provide valuable early-response biomarkers, in particular, for targeted chemotherapy. Using various experimental tumor models, we have investigated the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-glucose (FDG) and 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine (FLT) to detect response to the allosteric mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus. Tumor models were declared sensitive (murine melanoma B16/BL6 and human lung H596) or relatively insensitive (human colon HCT116 and cervical KB31), according to the IC(50) values (concentration inhibiting cell growth by 50%) for inhibition of proliferation in vitro (<10 nM and >1 microM, respectively). Everolimus strongly inhibited growth of the sensitive models in vivo but also significantly inhibited growth of the insensitive models, an effect attributable to its known anti-angiogenic/vascular properties. However, although tumor FDG and FLT uptake was significantly reduced in the sensitive models, it was not affected in the insensitive models, suggesting that endothelial-directed effects could not be detected by these PET tracers. Consistent with this hypothesis, in a well-vascularized orthotopic rat mammary tumor model, other antiangiogenic agents also failed to affect FDG uptake, despite inhibiting tumor growth. In contrast, the cytotoxic patupilone, a microtubule stabilizer, blocked tumor growth, and markedly reduced FDG uptake. These results suggest that FDG/FLT-PET may not be a suitable method for early markers of response to antiangiogenic agents and mTOR inhibitors in which anti-angiogenic/vascular effects predominate because the method could provide false-negative responses. These conclusions warrant clinical testing.Translational oncology 08/2010; 3(4):264-75. DOI:10.1593/tlo.10127 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to test whether [(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) uptake of tumours measured by positron emission tomography (PET) can be used as surrogate marker to define the optimal biological dose (OBD) of mTOR inhibitors in vivo. Everolimus at 0.05, 0.5, 5 and 15 mg kg(-1) per day was administered to gastric cancer xenograft-bearing mice for 23 days and FDG uptake of tumours was measured using PET from day 1 to day 8. To provide standard comparators for FDG uptake, tumour volume, S6 protein phosphorylation, Ki-67 staining and everolimus blood levels were evaluated. Everolimus blood levels increased in a dose-dependent manner but antitumour activity of everolimus reached a plateau at doses >or=5 mg kg(-1) per day (tumour volume treated vs control (T/C): 51% for 5 mg kg(-1) per day and 57% for 15 mg kg(-1) per day). Correspondingly, doses >or=5 mg kg(-1) per day led to a significant reduction in FDG uptake of tumours. Dose escalation above 5 mg kg(-1) per day did not reduce FDG uptake any further (FDG uptake T/C: 49% for 5 mg kg(-1) per day and 52% for 15 mg kg(-1) per day). Differences in S6 protein phosphorylation and Ki-67 index reflected tumour volume and changes in FDG uptake but did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, FDG uptake might serve as a surrogate marker for dose finding studies for mTOR inhibitors in (pre)clinical trials.British Journal of Cancer 05/2009; 100(11):1739-45. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605076 · 4.82 Impact Factor