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Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened and 100% fruit juice among US children and adolescents, 1988-2004

Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy and Management, 600 West 168th St, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10032, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.3). 06/2008; 121(6):e1604-14. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-2834
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We sought to document increases in caloric contributions from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice among US youth during 1988-2004.
We analyzed 24-hour dietary recalls from children and adolescents (aged 2-19) in 2 nationally representative population surveys: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994, N = 9882) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 (N = 10 962). We estimated trends in caloric contribution, type, and location of sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice consumed.
Per-capita daily caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice increased from 242 kcal/day (1 kcal = 4.2 kJ) in 1988-1994 to 270 kcal/day in 1999-2004; sugar-sweetened beverage intake increased from 204 to 224 kcal/day and 100% fruit juice increased from 38 to 48 kcal/day. The largest increases occurred among children aged 6 to 11 years ( approximately 20% increase). There was no change in per-capita consumption among white adolescents but significant increases among black and Mexican American youths. On average, respondents aged 2 to 5, 6 to 11, and 12 to 19 years who had sugar-sweetened beverages on the surveyed day in 1999-2004 consumed 176, 229, and 356 kcal/day, respectively. Soda contributed approximately 67% of all sugar-sweetened beverage calories among the adolescents, whereas fruit drinks provided more than half of the sugar-sweetened beverage calories consumed by preschool-aged children. Fruit juice drinkers consumed, on average, 148 (ages 2-5), 136 (ages 6-11), and 184 (ages 12-19) kcal/day. On a typical weekday, 55% to 70% of all sugar-sweetened beverage calories were consumed in the home environment, and 7% to 15% occurred in schools.
Children and adolescents today derive 10% to 15% of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice. Our analysis indicates increasing consumption in all ages. Schools are a limited source for sugar-sweetened beverages, suggesting that initiatives to restrict sugar-sweetened beverage sales in schools may have an only marginal impact on overall consumption. Pediatricians' awareness of these trends is critical for helping children and parents target suboptimal dietary patterns that may contribute to excess calories and obesity.

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    • "In particular, sports and energy drinks (SEDs) are relatively new products that are increasingly marketed to adolescents [4]. Furthermore, purchase and consumption of these drinks by adolescents appear to be common [1] [5] [6]. In 2010, the proportion of high school students who consumed SDs and EDs at least once per day was 16% and 5%, respectively [7]. "
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    • "In particular, sports and energy drinks (SEDs) are relatively new products that are increasingly marketed to adolescents [4]. Furthermore, purchase and consumption of these drinks by adolescents appear to be common [1] [5] [6]. In 2010, the proportion of high school students who consumed SDs and EDs at least once per day was 16% and 5%, respectively [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To examine the proportion of health care providers who counsel adolescent patients on sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and the association with provider characteristics. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers who see patients ≤17 years old. The proportion providing regular counseling on sports drinks (SDs), energy drinks (EDs), or both was assessed. Chi-square analyses examined differences in counseling based on provider characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for characteristics independently associated with SED counseling. Results. Overall, 34% of health care providers regularly counseled on both SEDs, with 41% regularly counseling on SDs and 55% regularly counseling on EDs. On adjusted modeling regular SED counseling was associated with the female sex (aOR: 1.44 [95% CI: 1.07-1.93]), high fruit/vegetable intake (aOR: 2.05 [95% CI: 1.54-2.73]), family/general practitioners (aOR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.41-0.82]) and internists (aOR: 0.37 [95% CI: 0.20-0.70]) versus pediatricians, and group versus individual practices (aOR: 0.59 [95% CI: 0.42-0.84]). Modeling for SD- and ED-specific counseling found similar associations with provider characteristics. Conclusion. The prevalence of regular SED counseling is low overall and varies. Provider education on the significance of SED counseling and consumption is important.
    International Journal of Pediatrics 03/2014; 2014:987082. DOI:10.1155/2014/987082
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    • "While trends in total EI over the past 40 years are unclear, there is little ambiguity for trends in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, which has increased dramatically in recent decades [58] [59] [60]. For example, the average self-reported softdrink intake in American youth increased from roughly 150 mL/day in 1977 to more than 350 mL/day in 1998 [59], and recent studies suggest that total SSB intake has continued to increase into the 21st century [60]. Interestingly, while this may be partially due to increased fast food consumption, available evidence suggests that SSB intake has also increased in the home environment in recent decades [56]. "
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    12/2011; 2011:917684. DOI:10.5402/2011/917684
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