Increasing Caloric Contribution From Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and 100% Fruit Juices Among US Children and Adolescents, 1988-2004

Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy and Management, 600 West 168th St, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10032, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 06/2008; 121(6):e1604-14. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-2834
Source: PubMed


We sought to document increases in caloric contributions from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice among US youth during 1988-2004.
We analyzed 24-hour dietary recalls from children and adolescents (aged 2-19) in 2 nationally representative population surveys: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994, N = 9882) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 (N = 10 962). We estimated trends in caloric contribution, type, and location of sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice consumed.
Per-capita daily caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice increased from 242 kcal/day (1 kcal = 4.2 kJ) in 1988-1994 to 270 kcal/day in 1999-2004; sugar-sweetened beverage intake increased from 204 to 224 kcal/day and 100% fruit juice increased from 38 to 48 kcal/day. The largest increases occurred among children aged 6 to 11 years ( approximately 20% increase). There was no change in per-capita consumption among white adolescents but significant increases among black and Mexican American youths. On average, respondents aged 2 to 5, 6 to 11, and 12 to 19 years who had sugar-sweetened beverages on the surveyed day in 1999-2004 consumed 176, 229, and 356 kcal/day, respectively. Soda contributed approximately 67% of all sugar-sweetened beverage calories among the adolescents, whereas fruit drinks provided more than half of the sugar-sweetened beverage calories consumed by preschool-aged children. Fruit juice drinkers consumed, on average, 148 (ages 2-5), 136 (ages 6-11), and 184 (ages 12-19) kcal/day. On a typical weekday, 55% to 70% of all sugar-sweetened beverage calories were consumed in the home environment, and 7% to 15% occurred in schools.
Children and adolescents today derive 10% to 15% of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice. Our analysis indicates increasing consumption in all ages. Schools are a limited source for sugar-sweetened beverages, suggesting that initiatives to restrict sugar-sweetened beverage sales in schools may have an only marginal impact on overall consumption. Pediatricians' awareness of these trends is critical for helping children and parents target suboptimal dietary patterns that may contribute to excess calories and obesity.

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    • "It also relates to economic burden for medical expense and reduction of national productivity. Therefore, American Public Health Association (APHA) has implemented the policy to raise taxes on sugar sweetened beverage to reduce the consumption of these unhealthy drink among children and adults in the United States [7] [8] [9] [10]. In Malaysia, Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak has announced the withdrawal subsidy of sugar in Budget 2014, which causes an increase of its price. "
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    • "In particular, sports and energy drinks (SEDs) are relatively new products that are increasingly marketed to adolescents [4]. Furthermore, purchase and consumption of these drinks by adolescents appear to be common [1] [5] [6]. In 2010, the proportion of high school students who consumed SDs and EDs at least once per day was 16% and 5%, respectively [7]. "
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    • "According to the recommendation by 2010 Dietary Guideline for Americans, fruit juice is considered to be less desirable because it has less dietary fiber than whole fruit [14]. Fruit juice is also criticized by its concentrated or additionally supplemented sugars and contributing the extra calories when consumed in excess [15]. However, Schulze et al. [16] found that fruit fiber was not significantly related to the lower risk of diabetes based on the data of previous prospective studies [17]–[23]. "
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