Is obesity bad for older persons? A systematic review of the pros and cons of weight reduction in later life
ABSTRACT The purpose of this review was to describe the characteristics of late-life obesity, including prevalence, pathophysiology, and influences on morbidity and mortality. A second objective was to systematically review the empiric evidence on the effects of intentional weight loss interventions in older individuals.
We summarized the characteristics and known impact of late-life obesity and conducted a systematic review of the outcomes of weight loss interventions in obese older subjects. The inclusion criteria for the review were the following: randomized controlled trial; subjects aged 60 years or older; baseline BMI 27 or higher; weight loss versus baseline 3% or more or 2 kg; and trial duration 6 months or longer.
The search strategy yielded 16 articles on weight loss interventions that were examined in detail. Overall, these interventions led to significant benefits for those with osteoarthritis, coronary heart disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2), while having slightly negative effects on bone mineral density and lean body mass.
Longitudinal trials examining mortality and body weight suggest that maintaining weight is beneficial in older persons who become obese after age 65; in contrast, intervention trials show clinically important benefits of weight reduction with regard to osteoarthritis, physical function, and possibly DM-2 and coronary heart disease. Given these findings, we recommend that decisions about whether or not to institute a weight loss intervention for obese older persons be carefully considered on an individualized basis with special attention to the weight history and the medical conditions of each individual.
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ABSTRACT: Intentional weight loss in obese older adults is a risk factor for muscle loss and sarcopenia. The objective was to examine the effect of a high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement on muscle mass preservation during intentional weight loss in obese older adults. We included 80 obese older adults in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. During a 13-wk weight loss program, all subjects followed a hypocaloric diet (-600 kcal/d) and performed resistance training 3×/wk. Subjects were randomly allocated to a high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement including a mix of other macro- and micronutrients (150 kcal, 21 g protein; 10×/wk, intervention group) or an isocaloric control. The primary outcome was change in appendicular muscle mass. The secondary outcomes were body composition, handgrip strength, and physical performance. Data were analyzed by using ANCOVA and mixed linear models with sex and baseline value as covariates. At baseline, mean ± SD age was 63 ± 5.6 y, and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) was 33 ± 4.4. During the trial, protein intake was 1.11 ± 0.28 g · kg body weight(-1) · d(-1) in the intervention group compared with 0.85 ± 0.24 g · kg body weight(-1) · d(-1) in the control group (P < 0.001). Both intervention and control groups decreased in body weight (-3.4 ± 3.6 kg and -2.8 ± 2.8 kg; both P < 0.001) and fat mass (-3.2 ± 3.1 kg and -2.5 ± 2.4 kg; both P < 0.001), with no differences between groups. The 13-wk change in appendicular muscle mass, however, was different in the intervention and control groups [+0.4 ± 1.2 kg and -0.5 ± 2.1 kg, respectively; β = 0.95 kg (95% CI: 0.09, 1.81); P = 0.03]. Muscle strength and function improved over time without significant differences between groups. A high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement compared with isocaloric control preserves appendicular muscle mass in obese older adults during a hypocaloric diet and resistance exercise program and might therefore reduce the risk of sarcopenia. This trial was registered at the Dutch Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl) as NTR2751. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2015; 101(2):279-86. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.090290 · 6.92 Impact Factor
Bariatric Nursing and Surgical Patient Care 03/2011; 6(1):43-48. DOI:10.1089/bar.2011.9982 · 0.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with multiple negative health consequences and current weight management guidelines recommend all obese persons to lose weight. However, recent evidence suggests that not all obese persons are negatively affected by their weight and that weight loss does not necessarily always improve health. The purpose of this review is not to trivialize the significant health risks associated with obesity, but to discuss subpopulations of obese people who are not adversely affected, or may even benefit from higher adiposity, and in who weight loss per se may not always be the most appropriate recommendation. More specifically, this review will take a devil's advocate position when discussing the consequences of obesity and weight loss for adults with established cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, weight cyclers, metabolically healthy obese adults, youth, older adults and obese individuals who are highly fit.Obesity Reviews 12/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1111/obr.12232 · 7.86 Impact Factor