Resistant hypertension: Diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment - A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research
ABSTRACT Resistant hypertension is a common clinical problem faced by both primary care clinicians and specialists. While the exact prevalence of resistant hypertension is unknown, clinical trials suggest that it is not rare, involving perhaps 20% to 30% of study participants. As older age and obesity are 2 of the strongest risk factors for uncontrolled hypertension, the incidence of resistant hypertension will likely increase as the population becomes more elderly and heavier. The prognosis of resistant hypertension is unknown, but cardiovascular risk is undoubtedly increased as patients often have a history of long-standing, severe hypertension complicated by multiple other cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, sleep apnea, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. The diagnosis of resistant hypertension requires use of good blood pressure technique to confirm persistently elevated blood pressure levels. Pseudoresistance, including lack of blood pressure control secondary to poor medication adherence or white coat hypertension, must be excluded. Resistant hypertension is almost always multifactorial in etiology. Successful treatment requires identification and reversal of lifestyle factors contributing to treatment resistance; diagnosis and appropriate treatment of secondary causes of hypertension; and use of effective multidrug regimens. As a subgroup, patients with resistant hypertension have not been widely studied. Observational assessments have allowed for identification of demographic and lifestyle characteristics associated with resistant hypertension, and the role of secondary causes of hypertension in promoting treatment resistance is well documented; however, identification of broader mechanisms of treatment resistance is lacking. In particular, attempts to elucidate potential genetic causes of resistant hypertension have been limited. Recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of resistant hypertension remain largely empiric due to the lack of systematic assessments of 3 or 4 drug combinations. Studies of resistant hypertension are limited by the high cardiovascular risk of patients within this subgroup, which generally precludes safe withdrawal of medications; the presence of multiple disease processes (eg, sleep apnea, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, atherosclerotic disease) and their associated medical therapies, which confound interpretation of study results; and the difficulty in enrolling large numbers of study participants. Expanding our understanding of the causes of resistant hypertension and thereby potentially allowing for more effective prevention and/or treatment will be essential to improve the long-term clinical management of this disorder.
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ABSTRACT: The pathology of radiofrequency-derived sympathetic renal denervation has not been studied over time and may provide important understanding of the mechanisms resulting in sustained blood pressure reduction. The purpose of this study was to investigate chronological changes after radiofrequency-renal denervation in the swine model. A total of 49 renal arteries from 28 animals with 4 different time points (7, 30, 60, and 180 days) were examined. Semiquantitative histological assessment of arteries and associated tissue was performed to characterize the chronological progression of the radiofrequency lesions. Arterial medial circumferential injury (%) was greatest at 7 days (38±13%), followed by 30 days (31±6%) and 60 days (31±15%), and least at 180 days (21±12%) (P=0.046). Nerve injury score was significantly greater (P<0.001) at 7 days (3.9±0.4) compared with 30 days (2.5±0.5), 60 days (2.6±0.5), and 180 days (1.9±0.9). Tyrosine hydroxylase score, which assesses functional nerve damage, was significantly less after 7 (1±1) and 30 days (0.7±0.6) compared with 60 (2.7±0.6) and 180 days (2.7±0.6; P=0.01). Focal nerve regeneration at the sites of radiofrequency ablation was observed in 17% of renal arteries at 60 days and 71% of 180 days. Nerve injury after radiofrequency ablation was greatest at 7 days, with maximum functional nerve damage sustained ≤30 days. Focal terminal nerve regeneration was observed only at the sites of ablation as early as 60 days and continued to 180 days. Renal artery and peri-arterial soft tissue injury is greatest in the subacute phase, and least in the chronic phase, suggesting gradual recovery of the renal arterial wall and surrounding tissue. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2015; 8(2). DOI:10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.114.001813 · 6.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The frequency of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increasing day by day worldwide. The CVD may take shape of an epidemic in near future. The contemporary methods for blood pressure (BP) management seem to be inadequate. Lack of information on the underlying mechanism of BP variability could be the prime reason for the failure in curbing this important health issue. Therefore, there is an urgent need for more advanced research on BP and its management. The temporal aspect of BP is emerging as a critical factor in dedicated clinics for hypertension management. The scientists in the West have recognized this aptly and have involved in translating the chronobiological principles in the process of optimization of therapy. The temporal dimensions of BP and its management are least explored in Indian clinics. The entire domain is a grey area in research, and therefore, deserves attention.Biological Rhythm Research 09/2013; 45(3):477-494. DOI:10.1080/09291016.2013.851903 · 1.22 Impact Factor
Nephrology self-assessment program: NephSAP 03/2014; 13(2):57-63.