Smoking prevalence, knowledge, and attitudes among a population of Vietnamese American men.
ABSTRACT Tobacco use among Vietnamese adult males in the United States is higher than the general population. Less is known about the role of knowledge and attitudes of smoking in smoking status. This study describes the smoking prevalence, practices, support, knowledge, and attitudes among Vietnamese American men by smoking status. We administrated a cross-sectional in-person health questionnaire to randomly selected Vietnamese men (18-64 years of age) living in Seattle, Washington, using bilingual, bicultural Vietnamese male interviewers (N = 509). The response rate was 79%; the cooperation rate was 82%. Sixty-four percent of respondents had a history of smoking: 37% current, 27% former, and 36% never smokers. Smoking prevalence was lowest among men aged 18-29 years. Among smokers, 81% smoked 1 to 10 cigarettes per day, 69% wanted to quit, and 48% planned to do so in the next 6 months. Twelve percent of smokers reported smoking was allowed in the home. On average, respondents correctly answered six out of seven questions regarding health risks related to smoking. In logistic regression analyses, being a current smoker was negatively associated with a higher knowledge score (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.71-0.97). Adjusted odds of being a current smoker were 3.77 times higher among men who agreed with the attitude statement "It is appropriate for Vietnamese men to smoke when with friends." (OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.28-3.61). The findings suggest a great need to develop appropriate tobacco-control interventions to lower smoking prevalence, improve tobacco-related health knowledge, and reduce the acceptance of smoking among Vietnamese American men.
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ABSTRACT: Vietnamese American men have smoking prevalence rates higher than the general population. We analyzed Vietnamese American smoking behavior by demographic and health-related factors, including some specific to Vietnamese, in the largest tobacco-specific survey yet targeting the Vietnamese population. Using a statewide surname probability sample and computer-assisted telephone interviewing, we surveyed 1,101 Vietnamese men and 1,078 Vietnamese women in California (63.5% participation among successfully contacted eligible individuals) in 2007-2008. We conducted multivariate regression models to analyze the association between Vietnamese male smoking status and demographic and health-related factors. Among women, <1% were current smokers and <2% were former smokers. Among men, 25% were current and 24% were former smokers. Regression models for Vietnamese men delineated factors associated with both current and former smoking (vs. never smoking): being married, being employed, having lower educational attainment, and consuming alcohol. Other factors associated with current smoking (vs. never smoking) were having no health insurance, having seen a Vietnamese doctor or no doctor visit in the past year, having Vietnamese military or Vietnamese reeducation camp experience, having less knowledge about the harms of smoking, and reporting higher depression symptoms. Increasing age and not being Buddhist were associated with former (vs. never) smoking. Smoking patterns of Vietnamese women and Vietnamese men are significantly different from the general California population. Tobacco control efforts targeting Vietnamese men should include community outreach since current smokers have low health care access, utilization, and knowledge.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 06/2010; 12(6):613-21. DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntq056 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Asian Americans, along with other ethnic minorities, have been described to be more likely than Whites to be light and intermittent smokers. Characterizing Asian American smoking behavior accurately on a population level requires oversampling groups of different national origin and including non-English-speaking participants. We analyzed the California Health Interview Survey to compare moderate/heavy (> or =10 cigarettes/day), light (0-9 cigarettes/day), and intermittent (not daily) smoking patterns in Asian Americans with those of Whites. We also examined whether social and demographic factors that had been associated with Asian American smoking prevalence also were associated with light and intermittent smoking patterns in each of the national origin groups. Most Asian American smokers were more likely to be light and intermittent smokers (range = 36.6%-61.5% for men and 29.9%-81.5% for women) compared with Whites, with lower mean cigarette consumption. Asian American light and intermittent smokers were more likely than moderate/heavy smokers to be women (odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.14-3.94), highly educated (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.21-8.28), not Korean (compared with Chinese; OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13-0.79), and bilingual speakers with high English language proficiency compared with English-only speakers (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.21-6.84). Asian American intermittent smokers were more likely than daily smokers to be women (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.08-4.72) and to have lower household income. The predominance of Asian American light and intermittent smoking patterns has important implications for developing effective tobacco control outreach. Further studies are needed to elaborate the relationship between biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors influencing Asian American smoking intensity.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 02/2009; 11(2):197-202. DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntp013 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the third leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Few biopsychosocial studies have addressed knowledge of specific ETS health effects, attitudes toward ETS, and personal preventive efforts related to ETS. We surveyed a diverse U.S. community sample of convenience (N = 328) in Flagstaff, Arizona, to examine the following: (a) Does ETS knowledge measured using two response formats, open-ended (OPEF) versus closed-ended (CLEF), result in differences in apparent knowledge? and (b) what are demographic predictors of ETS knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behaviors? Participants scored significantly higher on the ETS knowledge CLEF than OPEF. In regression analyses, predictors of ETS knowledge on the OPEF scale included ethnicity, age, and smoking status; the model predicting knowledge using the CLEF scale was not significant. Knowledge and smoking status, as measured on both the CLEF and the OPEF, were significant predictors of negative attitudes. Additional predictors of attitudes included income for the model using the OPEF and gender for the model using the CLEF. Predictors of preventive behaviors included attitudes and age (OPEF and CLEF models). Differences in apparent ETS knowledge of specific ETS health effects by varying response format suggest that open-ended surveys may be useful in identifying specific content areas to address in public health education efforts. Various demographic variables predicted ETS knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behaviors, highlighting specific populations to target in public health interventions relating to ETS, such as non-White and younger populations.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 06/2010; 12(6):674-8. DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntq065 · 2.81 Impact Factor