Tobacco use among Vietnamese adult males in the United States is higher than the general population. Less is known about the role of knowledge and attitudes of smoking in smoking status. This study describes the smoking prevalence, practices, support, knowledge, and attitudes among Vietnamese American men by smoking status. We administrated a cross-sectional in-person health questionnaire to randomly selected Vietnamese men (18-64 years of age) living in Seattle, Washington, using bilingual, bicultural Vietnamese male interviewers (N = 509). The response rate was 79%; the cooperation rate was 82%. Sixty-four percent of respondents had a history of smoking: 37% current, 27% former, and 36% never smokers. Smoking prevalence was lowest among men aged 18-29 years. Among smokers, 81% smoked 1 to 10 cigarettes per day, 69% wanted to quit, and 48% planned to do so in the next 6 months. Twelve percent of smokers reported smoking was allowed in the home. On average, respondents correctly answered six out of seven questions regarding health risks related to smoking. In logistic regression analyses, being a current smoker was negatively associated with a higher knowledge score (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.71-0.97). Adjusted odds of being a current smoker were 3.77 times higher among men who agreed with the attitude statement "It is appropriate for Vietnamese men to smoke when with friends." (OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.28-3.61). The findings suggest a great need to develop appropriate tobacco-control interventions to lower smoking prevalence, improve tobacco-related health knowledge, and reduce the acceptance of smoking among Vietnamese American men.
"Chinese and Vietnamese Americans are 2 rapidly growing population groups in the United States (1). Disproportionately high rates of smoking prevalence have been reported among Chinese men (range, 22%–34%) (2–9) and Vietnamese men (25%–43%) with limited proficiency in English (9–12), compared with non-Hispanic white men (20.6%) (13). Evidence-based guidelines for smoking cessation recommend use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (14). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Population-based studies have reported high rates of smoking prevalence among Chinese and Vietnamese American men. Although nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is effective, recommended, and accessible without prescription, these populations underuse NRT for smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to assess understanding and use of NRT and nonpharmacologic treatments among Chinese and Vietnamese American male smokers and their families.
In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 smoker-family pairs, followed by individual interviews with each participant. A total of 39 interviews were conducted in Vietnamese or Chinese, recorded, translated, and transcribed into English for analysis.
Four themes were identified: use and understanding of NRT, nonpharmacologic strategies, familial and religious approaches, and willpower. Both smokers and their family members believed strongly in willpower and a sense of personal responsibility as the primary drivers for stopping smoking. Lack of these 2 qualities keeps many Chinese and Vietnamese men from using NRT to quit smoking. Those who do use NRT often use it incorrectly, following their own preferences rather than product instructions.
Our findings indicate the importance of culturally appropriate patient education about NRT. It may be necessary to teach smokers and their families at an individual level about NRT as a complementary approach that can strengthen their resolve to quit smoking. At a community level, public health education on the indication and appropriate use of evidence-based smoking cessation resources, such as NRT, would be an important component of effective tobacco control.
"in its association with current smoking. Although a previous smaller survey found no association between religion and smoking status among Vietnamese men in Seattle (Chan et al., 2007), the current findings suggest that a possible association between religion and tobacco use is worth exploring more. For example, religious affiliation has been suggested as a protective role for tobacco use among California's South Asians (McCarthy et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vietnamese American men have smoking prevalence rates higher than the general population. We analyzed Vietnamese American smoking behavior by demographic and health-related factors, including some specific to Vietnamese, in the largest tobacco-specific survey yet targeting the Vietnamese population.
Using a statewide surname probability sample and computer-assisted telephone interviewing, we surveyed 1,101 Vietnamese men and 1,078 Vietnamese women in California (63.5% participation among successfully contacted eligible individuals) in 2007-2008. We conducted multivariate regression models to analyze the association between Vietnamese male smoking status and demographic and health-related factors.
Among women, <1% were current smokers and <2% were former smokers. Among men, 25% were current and 24% were former smokers. Regression models for Vietnamese men delineated factors associated with both current and former smoking (vs. never smoking): being married, being employed, having lower educational attainment, and consuming alcohol. Other factors associated with current smoking (vs. never smoking) were having no health insurance, having seen a Vietnamese doctor or no doctor visit in the past year, having Vietnamese military or Vietnamese reeducation camp experience, having less knowledge about the harms of smoking, and reporting higher depression symptoms. Increasing age and not being Buddhist were associated with former (vs. never) smoking.
Smoking patterns of Vietnamese women and Vietnamese men are significantly different from the general California population. Tobacco control efforts targeting Vietnamese men should include community outreach since current smokers have low health care access, utilization, and knowledge.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asian Americans, along with other ethnic minorities, have been described to be more likely than Whites to be light and intermittent smokers. Characterizing Asian American smoking behavior accurately on a population level requires oversampling groups of different national origin and including non-English-speaking participants.
We analyzed the California Health Interview Survey to compare moderate/heavy (> or =10 cigarettes/day), light (0-9 cigarettes/day), and intermittent (not daily) smoking patterns in Asian Americans with those of Whites. We also examined whether social and demographic factors that had been associated with Asian American smoking prevalence also were associated with light and intermittent smoking patterns in each of the national origin groups.
Most Asian American smokers were more likely to be light and intermittent smokers (range = 36.6%-61.5% for men and 29.9%-81.5% for women) compared with Whites, with lower mean cigarette consumption. Asian American light and intermittent smokers were more likely than moderate/heavy smokers to be women (odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.14-3.94), highly educated (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.21-8.28), not Korean (compared with Chinese; OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13-0.79), and bilingual speakers with high English language proficiency compared with English-only speakers (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.21-6.84). Asian American intermittent smokers were more likely than daily smokers to be women (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.08-4.72) and to have lower household income.
The predominance of Asian American light and intermittent smoking patterns has important implications for developing effective tobacco control outreach. Further studies are needed to elaborate the relationship between biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors influencing Asian American smoking intensity.
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