Is daytime sleepiness a neglected problem in patients with restless legs syndrome?

Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.
Movement Disorders (Impact Factor: 5.63). 01/2007; 22 Suppl 18:S409-13. DOI: 10.1002/mds.21511
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder of sleep/wake motor regulation that is associated with sleep disturbances. Here, we review the evidence that RLS is also associated with increased daytime sleepiness. Summarizing 26 studies that assessed sleepiness by means of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in untreated subjects with idiopathic RLS, we found that 20 to 25% of subjects are at an increased risk for daytime sleepiness.

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    ABSTRACT: The European Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) Study Group (EURLSSG) is an association of European RLS experts who are actively involved in RLS research. A major aim of the Study Group is the development and continuous improvement of standards for diagnosis and treatment of RLS. Several members developed study designs and evaluation methods in investigator-initiated trials early in the 1990s, and all members have since contributed to many pivotal and nonpivotal drug trials for the treatment of RLS. The recommendations on clinical investigations of pharmacological treatment of RLS patients summarize the group's expertise and knowledge acquired through clinical trials. The recommendations primarily address how to plan and conduct confirmatory, randomized clinical studies in patients with idiopathic RLS. Advice is presented for the diagnosis of RLS and clinical and polysomnographic inclusion and exclusion criteria. Primary and secondary endpoints for an evaluation of efficacy are based on a critical description of validated methods for both short- and long-term trials, also in special populations (children, pregnant women, elderly patients). The recommendations include the assessment of augmentation. Finally, general issues including the evaluation of safety and tolerability, as well as specific neurological and cardiovascular risks and sleep attacks/daytime somnolence, are discussed. The aim of these recommendations is to support research groups or pharmaceutical companies in the design of optimized study protocols. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society
    Movement Disorders 05/2007; 22(S18):S495 - S504. DOI:10.1002/mds.21538 · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between the fragile X premutation and restless legs syndrome (RLS). Demographic, medical history and survey responses related to sleep were collected from 213 participants (127 carriers and 86 age matched controls). Subjects were asked about the presence of the four formal diagnostic criteria for RLS. Individuals with the premutation were 1.9 times as likely to meet criteria for RLS (95% CI 1.1–3.2, p = 0.025) as controls. Premutation carriers with RLS also experienced significantly worse symptoms than matched controls with adjusted mean scores of 15.1 ± 8.8 vs 7.9 ± 4.4, respectively on the International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS). As markers for domains of sleep disturbance, all subjects completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISA) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Premutation carriers demonstrated significantly more pathology on these tests except for the ESS where there was a trend towards increased daytime sleepiness in carriers. RLS joins a host of other conditions that should be carefully screened for in those carrying the fragile X premutation and sleep should be a focus for clinicians providing care to them.
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purposeThe aim was to investigate the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS), fatigue and daytime sleepiness in a large cohort of patients affected by post polio syndrome (PPS) and their impact on patient health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared with healthy subjects.MethodsPPS patients were evaluated by means of the Stanford Sleepiness Scale and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire was utilized to assess HRQoL in PPS. RLS was diagnosed when standard criteria were met. Age and sex matched healthy controls were recruited amongst spouses or friends of PPS subjects.ResultsA total of 66 PPS patients and 80 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. A significantly higher prevalence of RLS (P < 0.0005; odds ratio 21.5; 95% confidence interval 8.17-57) was found in PPS patients (PPS/RLS+ 63.6%) than in healthy controls (7.5%). The FSS score was higher in PPS/RLS+ than in PPS/RLS− patients (P = 0.03). A significant decrease of SF-36 scores, including the physical function (P = 0.001), physical role (P = 0.0001) and bodily pain (P = 0.03) domains, was found in PPS/RLS+ versus PPS/RLS− patients. Finally, it was found that PPS/RLS+ showed a significant correlation between International Restless Legs Scale score and FSS (P < 0.0001), as well as between International Restless Legs Scale score and most of the SF-36 items (physical role P = 0.0018, general health P = 0.0009, vitality P = 0.0022, social functioning P = 0.002, role emotional P = 0.0019, and mental health P = 0.0003).Conclusion Our findings demonstrate a high prevalence of RLS in PPS, and that RLS occurrence may significantly influence the HRQoL and fatigue of PPS patients. A hypothetical link between neuroanatomical and inflammatory mechanisms in RLS and PPS is suggested.
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