Is daytime sleepiness a neglected problem in patients with restless legs syndrome?
ABSTRACT The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder of sleep/wake motor regulation that is associated with sleep disturbances. Here, we review the evidence that RLS is also associated with increased daytime sleepiness. Summarizing 26 studies that assessed sleepiness by means of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in untreated subjects with idiopathic RLS, we found that 20 to 25% of subjects are at an increased risk for daytime sleepiness.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor disorder whose incidence is not known. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and correlates of RLS in a population-based sample. We obtained data from the Tucson Cohort of the Sleep Heart Health Study, a prospective multicenter study. This cohort included 535 participants aged ≥ 40 years, who answered questions regarding RLS on the 2002 and 2006 sleep surveys. For this study, RLS was defined as the presence of all 4 International RLS Study Group criteria, with symptoms occurring ≥ 5 days/month and associated with at least moderate distress. Mean age of the predominantly Caucasian (90.8%) participants on the 2002 survey was 59.8 ± 9.7 years; 52.2% were women. RLS prevalence was 4.1% in 2002 and 7.7% in 2006. The yearly incidence of RLS was 1.7% (6.6% over 4 years). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that estrogen use (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.17-5.10) and self-reported obstructive lung disease (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.37-5.83) were independent risk factors predicting incident RLS. Incident RLS was associated with higher prevalence of insomnia (26.5% vs. 7.6%, p = 0.001), increased sleepiness (38.2% vs. 22%, p = 0.036); and higher sleeping pill use in 2006 (23.5% vs. 9.7%, p = 0.019). The incidence of RLS in this population sample was 1.7% per year. Use of estrogen and history of obstructive lung disease were associated with a significantly higher incidence of RLS. RLS, in turn, was associated with insomnia and increased sleepiness.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2012; 8(2):119-24. · 2.93 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in Turkish school children and adolescents during the past 12 months. A cross-sectional population study conducted in three primary and four high schools was randomly selected in the Umraniye district of Istanbul. In the first step, a 7-item questionnaire including pediatric diagnostic criteria of RLS proposed by the International Restless Legs Study Group was given to 4346 students aged from 10 to 19 years in the classroom. Candidates for "definite RLS" or "probable RLS" were selected by a face-to-face interview done by an expert. In the second step, a 58-item questionnaire was administered to the families of the selected subjects. The questionnaire aimed to survey family history, parent's awareness, and their behaviors for seeking treatment, as well as the differential diagnosis and comorbid disorders of RLS. Definite RLS was diagnosed in 119 (2.74%) of the subjects and was more prevalent in females (3.42%) compared to males (2.04%) (p=0.007). A family history of RLS was positive in 15.8% of the first-degree relatives of those 119 subjects. Less than half of the parents (45%) were aware of their children's symptoms and only 10.9% of these parents consulted medical centers. The most prevalent symptoms of sleep disturbances were restless sleep (28.6%) and daytime sleepiness (21%). Growing pains were reported in 54.5% of the 119 subjects with definite RLS. Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were found in 15.3% of the 119 subjects. RLS is prevalent in Turkish children and adolescents although family awareness of RLS is relatively low.Sleep Medicine 02/2011; 12(4):315-21. · 3.49 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigated the prevalence, natural course, and associated risk factors of habitual snoring (HS) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) over a period of 10 years among an aging population from their early sixties to their seventies. A population-based follow-up study among all persons born in 1935 and living in the city of Oulu in northern Finland was conducted. In this study, we examined subjects who had participated in two subsequent surveys conducted in 1996-1998 and 2007-2008. The data were gathered by questionnaires, as well as by laboratory and clinical measurements. Altogether 457 (55%) of the 838 eligible subjects participated in both surveys. The prevalence of both RLS and HS decreased during the 10 years from 21% to 15% and from 26% to 19%, respectively. Half of those who snored in 1996-1998 stopped snoring in 10 years time, and half of those who suffered from restless legs at least three times per week in 1996-1998 suffered from this syndrome never or less than once a week in 2007-2008. The 10-year incidence of new cases of both HS and RLS was 7%. Male gender predicted best the incidence of new HS in 10 years, while the Zung sum score as a marker of depressive symptoms and waist circumference predicted RLS. Overall, the prevalence of both HS and RLS seems to diminish during aging. The causes behind this still remain unknown and should be investigated with more sophisticated methods.Sleep And Breathing 07/2011; 16(3):639-48. · 2.26 Impact Factor