The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder of sleep/wake motor regulation that is associated with sleep disturbances. Here, we review the evidence that RLS is also associated with increased daytime sleepiness. Summarizing 26 studies that assessed sleepiness by means of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in untreated subjects with idiopathic RLS, we found that 20 to 25% of subjects are at an increased risk for daytime sleepiness.
"Restless legs syndrome has been reported to affect not only sleep quality but also many aspects of quality of life, emotional wellbeing and cognition in older adults (Cuellar et al., 2007; Pearson et al., 2006). In the present study, poor quality of nocturnal sleep was observed more frequently in RLS subjects than non-RLS subjects and 32.8% of RLS subjects showed daytime sleepiness, which is comparable with previous studies (Bassetti et al., 2001; Fulda and Wetter, 2007; Winkelman et al., 2006). Also, MDD was nearly fourfold more prevalent in RLS patients than in non-RLS subjects, which may justify examination of comorbid depression in elderly subjects complaining of RLS symptoms. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, neuropsychiatric comorbidities, iron metabolism and potential risk factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in the elderly Korean population. As a community-based epidemiological study, a simple random sample of 1118 was drawn from a roster of 61 730 adult individuals aged 65 years and older and 714 participated. The diagnosis of RLS was established in face-to-face interviews using the four minimal diagnostic criteria for RLS recommended by National Institute of Health. Depressive symptoms, nocturnal sleep disturbances, daytime sleepiness and quality of life were evaluated. Laboratory tests of iron metabolism, markers of inflammation, renal and endocrine function, hormones and vitamins were performed. A total of 59 patients (42 women and 17 men) were diagnosed as RLS with a prevalence of 8.3% (95% confidence interval: 6.2-10.3%), with an almost twofold higher prevalence in women (10.2%) than in men (5.7%). Depression was more prevalent among the subjects with RLS than without RLS and poor nocturnal sleep and quality of life were also observed in subjects with RLS. Daytime sleepiness was observed in 32.8% of subjects with RLS. No significant differences were found in iron metabolism or other risk factors between the subjects with and without RLS. The prevalence of RLS in the Korean elderly population was comparable with that in the Caucasian population. RLS had undesirable effects on mood, sleep quality and general wellbeing of elderly individuals.
Journal of Sleep Research 08/2009; 19(1 Pt 1):87-92. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2009.00739.x · 3.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of forward error correction (FEC) provides significant
coding gain, which has been used to demonstrate error-free transmission
under severely-errored operating conditions, with high spectral
efficiency, over distances exceeding 10,000 km, and at high bit rates.
Recent experiments using FEC have demonstrated aggregate transmission
capacity exceeding 2 Tb/s. FEC-coded transmission can tolerate a lower
optical SNR on the line, which in turn reduces impairments induced by
nonlinearities, with the net effect being an increase in the Q<sup>2
</sup>-factor when signal power is reduced
Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2001. LEOS 2001. The 14th Annual Meeting of the IEEE; 02/2001
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