Stracker TH, Morales M, Couto SS, Hussein H, Petrini JH.. The carboxy terminus of NBS1 is required for induction of apoptosis by the MRE11 complex. Nature 447: 218-221

Molecular Biology and Genetics, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, New York 10021, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 41.46). 05/2007; 447(7141):218-21. DOI: 10.1038/nature05740
Source: PubMed


The MRE11 complex (MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1) and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase function in the same DNA damage response pathway to effect cell cycle checkpoint activation and apoptosis. The functional interaction between the MRE11 complex and ATM has been proposed to require a conserved C-terminal domain of NBS1 for recruitment of ATM to sites of DNA damage. Human Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) cells and those derived from multiple mouse models of NBS express a hypomorphic NBS1 allele that exhibits impaired ATM activity despite having an intact C-terminal domain. This indicates that the NBS1 C terminus is not sufficient for ATM function. We derived Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) mice in which the C-terminal ATM interaction domain is deleted. Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) cells exhibit intra-S-phase checkpoint defects, but are otherwise indistinguishable from wild-type cells with respect to other checkpoint functions, ionizing radiation sensitivity and chromosome stability. However, multiple tissues of Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) mice showed a severe apoptotic defect, comparable to that of ATM- or CHK2-deficient animals. Analysis of p53 transcriptional targets and ATM substrates showed that, in contrast to the phenotype of Chk2(-/-) mice, NBS1(DeltaC) does not impair the induction of proapoptotic genes. Instead, the defects observed in Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) result from impaired phosphorylation of ATM targets including SMC1 and the proapoptotic factor, BID.

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Available from: Travis H Stracker, Feb 17, 2015
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    • "The MRE11 complex both promotes the activation of ATM and ATR and acts as a mediator, regulating their ability to phosphorylate a yet unknown fraction of their hundreds of substrates, which include key regulators of cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair and transcriptional activities [24] [25] [26] [27] [28]. The influence of the MRE11 complex on the activation of ATM, as well as its mediator functions, are required for efficient checkpoint induction in the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, as well as apoptosis in lymphoid cells [14] [15] [27]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Newly identified interactions with the FHA and BRCT domains of NBS1 influence subcellular localization of the MRE11 complex.•The MRE11 complex promotes TOPBP1 recruitment and ATR activation during replication stress.•The MRE11 complex is a barrier to oncogene-induced tumorigenesis.
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    • "It also acts as a bridge between the two broken DNA ends, keeping them in close proximity to facilitate a proper repair [18]. Subsequently, latent ATM dimers are activated and bind the MRN complex through the C-terminal part of NBS1 [19]. The active monomers of ATM transduce the signal by means of the phosphorylation of different targets, including those factors responsible of the cell cycle regulation, as well as others that ultimately repair the DNA damage. "
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    ABSTRACT: Organisms are continuously exposed to DNA damaging agents, consequently, cells have developed an intricate system known as the DNA damage response (DDR) in order to detect and repair DNA lesions. This response has to be rapid and accurate in order to keep genome integrity. It has been observed that the condensation state of chromatin hinders a proper DDR. However, the condensation state of chromatin is not the only barrier to DDR. In this review, we have collected data regarding the presence of DDR factors on micronuclear DNA lesions that indicate that micronuclei are almost incapable of generating an effective DDR because of defects in their nuclear envelope. Finally, considering the recent observations about the reincorporation of micronuclei to the main bulk of chromosomes, we suggest that, under certain circumstances, micronuclei carrying DNA damage might be a source of chromosome instability.
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    • "In addition apoptosis seems to be diminished when nibrin is absent or mutated. In two mouse models, disruption of the ATM interaction site in nibrin led to a severe apoptotic defect [104,105]. Since ATM is involved in IR-induced, p53-dependent and p53-independent, apoptotic pathways [106,107] the reduced apoptosis in the nibrin mutant cells reflects a failure in the activation of ATM. A study on human lymphoblastoid cell lines with different p53 status supports the view, that nibrin functions in IR-induced apoptosis via its role in activating ATM [108]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome of chromosomal instability mainly characterized by microcephaly at birth, combined immunodeficiency and predisposition to malignancies. Due to a founder mutation in the underlying NBN gene (c.657_661del5) the disease is encountered most frequently among Slavic populations. The principal clinical manifestations of the syndrome are: microcephaly, present at birth and progressive with age, dysmorphic facial features, mild growth retardation, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and, in females, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Combined cellular and humoral immunodeficiency with recurrent sinopulmonary infections, a strong predisposition to develop malignancies (predominantly of lymphoid origin) and radiosensitivity are other integral manifestations of the syndrome. The NBN gene codes for nibrin which, as part of a DNA repair complex, plays a critical nuclear role wherever double-stranded DNA ends occur, either physiologically or as a result of mutagenic exposure. Laboratory findings include: (1) spontaneous chromosomal breakage in peripheral T lymphocytes with rearrangements preferentially involving chromosomes 7 and 14, (2) sensitivity to ionizing radiation or radiomimetics as demonstrated in vitro by cytogenetic methods or by colony survival assay, (3) radioresistant DNA synthesis, (4) biallelic hypomorphic mutations in the NBN gene, and (5) absence of full-length nibrin protein. Microcephaly and immunodeficiency are common to DNA ligase IV deficiency (LIG4 syndrome) and severe combined immunodeficiency with microcephaly, growth retardation, and sensitivity to ionizing radiation due to NHEJ1 deficiency (NHEJ1 syndrome). In fact, NBS was most commonly confused with Fanconi anaemia and LIG4 syndrome. Genetic counselling should inform parents of an affected child of the 25% risk for further children to be affected. Prenatal molecular genetic diagnosis is possible if disease-causing mutations in both alleles of the NBN gene are known. No specific therapy is available for NBS, however, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be one option for some patients. Prognosis is generally poor due to the extremely high rate of malignancies. Zespół Nijmegen (Nijmegen breakage syndrome; NBS) jest rzadkim schorzeniem z wrodzoną niestabilnością chromosomową dziedziczącym się w sposób autosomalny recesywny, charakteryzującym się przede wszystkim wrodzonym małogłowiem, złożonymi niedoborami odporności i predyspozycją do rozwoju nowotworów. Choroba występuje najczęściej w populacjach słowiańskich, w których uwarunkowana jest mutacją założycielską w genie NBN (c.657_661del5). Do najważniejszych objawów zespołu zalicza się: małogłowie obecne od urodzenia i postępujące z wiekiem, charakterystyczne cechy dysmorfii twarzy, opóźnienie wzrastania, niepełnosprawność intelektualną w stopniu lekkim do umiarkowanego oraz hipogonadyzm hipogonadotropowy u dziewcząt. Na obraz choroby składają się także: niedobór odporności komórkowej i humoralnej, który jest przyczyną nawracających infekcji, znaczna predyspozycja do rozwoju nowotworów złośliwych (zwłaszcza układu chłonnego), a także zwiększona wrażliwość na promieniowanie jonizujące. Wyniki badań laboratoryjnych wykazują: (1) spontaniczną łamliwość chromosomów w limfocytach T krwi obwodowej, z preferencją do rearanżacji chromosomów 7 i 14, (2) nadwrażliwość na promieniowanie jonizujące lub radiomimetyki, co można wykazać metodami in vitro, (3) radiooporność syntezy DNA, (4) hipomorficzne mutacje na obu allelach genu NBN, oraz (5) brak w komórkach pełnej cząsteczki białka, nibryny. Małogłowie i niedobór odporności występują także w zespole niedoboru ligazy IV (LIG4) oraz w zespole niedoboru NHEJ1. Rodzice powinni otrzymać poradę genetyczną ze względu na wysokie ryzyko (25%) powtórzenia się choroby u kolejnego potomstwa. Możliwe jest zaproponowanie molekularnej diagnostyki prenatalnej jeżeli znane są obie mutacje będące przyczyną choroby. Nie ma możliwości zaproponowania specyficznej terapii, ale przeszczep szpiku może być alternatywą dla niektórych pacjentów. Generalnie prognoza nie jest pomyślna z uwagi na wysokie ryzyko rozwoju nowotworu.
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