Optimization of a rapid microwave assisted extraction method for the liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry determination of isoflavonoid aglycones in soybeans.
ABSTRACT A very fast chromatographic separation of isoflavonoids genistein, daidzein, formononetin and biochanin A was developed on a C18 high-speed column under isocratic conditions. The method was validated in terms of detection limits, quantitation limits (LOQs), linearity and precision. LOQs in 0.04-0.2 microg/g range were calculated, making feasible the determination of these compounds of nutritional concern at trace levels. Good linearity was demonstrated over three concentration orders of magnitude for each analyte (r2 0.990-1.000). The intra-day and inter-day repeatability was evaluated in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD%) at two concentration levels for each analyte (RSD% <9%). An optimization strategy was adopted to find the best conditions for the extraction of isoflavonoid aglycones from yellow soybeans using microwave-assisted extraction. The most relevant parameters resulted to be the microwave power, the extraction time and the acid concentration, optimal values being 600 W, 1 min and 12 M, respectively. When performing sample treatment on a fortified soybean sample, high recovery percentage was obtained for both compounds (94+/-8% for daidzein and 97+/-5% (n = 4) for genistein). The concentration level at which daidzein and genistein were found in the soybean sample were 1.21+/-0.15 mg/g and 2.38+/-0.09 mg/g (n=4), respectively.