To estimate the pooled risk of coffee consumption for Alzheimer's disease (AD).
We have reviewed all observational studies that evaluated the association between AD risk and coffee consumption. Four studies were identified: two case-control studies and two cohorts. These studies were carried out between 1990 and 2002.
There was an obvious protective effect of coffee consumption in the pooled estimate [risk estimate: 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.58-0.92)]. However, the homogeneity test was highly significant (p<0.01), indicating heterogeneity across the pooled studies. Pooled analysis applying the random effect model was 0.79 with 95% confidence interval overlapping unity (95% confidence interval: 0.46-1.36). Three studies assessed coffee consumption by interview questionnaire. The risk of AD in coffee consumers versus non-consumers in studies that used interview questionnaire had a pooled risk estimate of 0.70 with 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.90.
Although our pooled estimates show that coffee consumption is inversely associated with the risk of AD, the four studies had heterogeneous methodologies and results. Further prospective studies evaluating the association between coffee consumption and AD are strongly needed.
"Previous case-control    and populationbased studies [4, 5, 7–20, 23–29] analyzed the longterm effects of coffee, tea, or caffeine consumption and plasma levels of caffeine on cognitive decline and dementia, although time of exposure or changes in habits of coffee consumption were not taken into account. A first meta-analysis of only four studies suggested a negative association between coffee consumption and AD , despite important heterogeneity in methods and results. Another recent meta-analysis confirmed this finding suggesting that caffeine intake was related to a reduction of risk of different measures of cognitive impairment/decline . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coffee, tea, or caffeine consumption may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia. We estimated the association between change or constant habits in coffee consumption and the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated 1,445 individuals recruited from 5,632 subjects, aged 65-84 year old, from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging, a population-based sample from eight Italian municipalities with a 3.5-year median follow-up. Cognitively normal older individuals who habitually consumed moderate amount of coffee (from 1 to 2 cups of coffee/day) had a lower rate of the incidence of MCI than those who never or rarely consumed coffee [1 cup/day: hazard ratio (HR): 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.211 to 1.02 or 1-2 cups/day: HR: 0.31 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.75]. For cognitively normal older subjects who changed their coffee consumption habits, those increasing coffee consumption (>1 cup of coffee/day) had higher rate of the incidence of MCI compared to those with constant habits (up to±1 cup of coffee/day) (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.92) or those with reduced consumption (<1 cup of coffee/day) (HR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.16 to 4.08). Finally, there was no significant association between subjects with higher levels of coffee consumption (>2 cups of coffee/day) and the incidence of MCI in comparison with those who never or rarely consumed coffee (HR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.03 to 2.11). In conclusion, cognitively normal older individuals who increased their coffee consumption had a higher rate of developing MCI, while a constant in time moderate coffee consumption was associated to a reduced rate of the incidence of MCI.
"A quantitative review of four studies (two case-control studies and two cohorts) showed that coffee consumption is inversely associated with the risk of AD, compared to nonconsumers; the risk estimate of AD in coffee consumers is 0.70 with 95% confidence interval 0.55–0.90 . However, the four studies had heterogeneous methodologies and results, so further prospective studies evaluating the consumption of coffee and AD are strongly needed. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that accounts for the major cause of dementia, and the increasing worldwide prevalence of AD is a major public health concern. Increasing epidemiological studies suggest that diet and nutrition might be important modifiable risk factors for AD. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants, B vitamins, polyphenols, and polyunsaturated fatty acids are beneficial to AD, and consumptions of fish, fruits, vegetables, coffee, and light-to-moderate alcohol reduce the risk of AD. However, many of the results from randomized controlled trials are contradictory to that of epidemiological studies. Dietary patterns summarizing an overall diet are gaining momentum in recent years. Adherence to a healthy diet, the Japanese diet, and the Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower risk of AD. This paper will focus on the evidence linking many nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns to AD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coffee is a widely consumed beverage and has recently received considerable attention for its possible beneficial effects. Auditory neuropathy is a hearing disorder characterized by an abnormal auditory brainstem response. This study examined the auditory neuropathy induced by diabetes and investigated the action of coffee, trigonelline, and caffeine to determine whether they improved diabetic auditory neuropathy in mice. Auditory brainstem responses, auditory middle latency responses, and otoacoustic emissions were evaluated to assess auditory neuropathy. Coffee or trigonelline ameliorated the hearing threshold shift and delayed latency of the auditory evoked potential in diabetic neuropathy. These findings demonstrate that diabetes can produce a mouse model of auditory neuropathy and that coffee consumption potentially facilitates recovery from diabetes-induced auditory neuropathy. Furthermore, the active constituent in coffee may be trigonelline.
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