C3H/HeJ mice carrying a toll-like receptor 4 mutation are protected against the development of insulin resistance in white adipose tissue in response to a high-fat diet
ABSTRACT Inflammation is associated with obesity and has been implicated in the development of diabetes and atherosclerosis. During gram-negative bacterial infection, lipopolysaccharide causes an inflammatory reaction via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which has an essential function in the induction of innate and adaptative immunity. Our aim was to determine what role TLR4 plays in the development of metabolic phenotypes during high-fat feeding.
We evaluated metabolic consequences of a high-fat diet in TLR4 mutant mice (C3H/HeJ) and their respective controls.
TLR4 inactivation reduced food intake without significant modification of body weight, but with higher epididymal adipose tissue mass and adipocyte hypertrophy. It also attenuated the inflammatory response and increased glucose transport and the expression levels of adiponectin and lipogenic markers in white adipose tissue. In addition, TLR4 inactivation blunted insulin resistance induced by lipopolysaccharide in differentiated adipocytes. Increased feeding efficiency in TLR4 mutant mice was associated with lower mass and lower expression of uncoupling protein 1 gene in brown adipose tissue. Finally, TLR4 inactivation slowed the development of hepatic steatosis, reducing the liver triacylglycerol content and also expression levels of lipogenic and fibrosis markers.
TLR4 influences white adipose tissue inflammation and insulin sensitivity, as well as liver fat storage, and is important in the regulation of metabolic phenotype during a fat-enriched diet.
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ABSTRACT: Gut microbiota, its evolutive dynamics and influence on host through its protective, trophic and metabolic actions, has a key role in health and opens unique opportunities for the identification of new markers of the physiopathological state of each individual. Alterations in gut microbiota composition have been associated with plenty disorders. Of interest, the vast number of studies demonstrates the role of microbiota in obesity, a serious public health problem that has reached epidemic proportions in many developed and middle-income countries. The economic and health costs of this condition and its comorbidities such as fatty liver, insulin resistance/diabetes, or cardiovascular events are considerable. Therefore, every strategy designed to reduce obesity would imply important savings. Targeting microbiota, in order to restore/modulate the microbiota composition with antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, or even fecal transplants, is considered as a promising strategy for the development of new solutions for the treatment of obesity. However, there is still lot to do in this field in order to identify the exact composition of microbiota in "health" and the specific mechanisms that regulate the host-microbiotal crosstalk. In addition, it is important to note that changes not only in the gut microbiota profile (abundance) but also in its metabolism and functions need to be taken into account in the context of contribution in the physiopathology of obesity and related disorders.
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ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an important adipokine. Increasing evidence suggest that altered adiponectin levels are linked with metabolic and inflammatory disorders. Here we report an important yet previously unrecognized function of adiponectin in lactation by which maternal adiponectin determines the inflammatory status in the nursing neonates. Surprisingly, both maternal adiponectin over-expression in the transgenic mice and maternal adiponectin deletion in the knockout mice lead to systemic inflammation in the pups, manifested as transient hair loss. However, distinct mechanisms are involved. Adiponectin deficiency triggers leukocyte infiltration and production of inflammatory cytokines in the lactating mammary gland. In contrast, adiponectin overabundance increases lipid accumulation in the lactating mammary gland, resulting in excessive long chain saturated fatty acids (LcSFA) in milk. Interestingly, in both cases, the inflammation and alopecia in the pups can be rescued by TLR2/4 deletion because TLR2/4 double knockout pups are resistant. Mechanistically, LcSFA activation of inflammatory genes is TLR2/4-dependent and can be potentiated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, indicating that the inflammatory stimuli in both scenarios functionally converge by activating the TLR2/4 signaling. Therefore, our findings reveal adiponectin as a dosage-dependent regulator of lactation homeostasis and milk quality that critically control inflammation in the nursing neonates. Furthermore, these results suggest that inflammatory infantile disorders may result from maternal adiponectin dysregulation that can be treated by TLR2/4 inhibition.Endocrinology 01/2015; DOI:10.1210/en.2014-1738 · 4.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pattern recognition receptors link metabolite and bacteria-derived inflammation to insulin resistance during obesity. We demonstrate that NOD2 detection of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (PGN) regulates metabolic inflammation and insulin sensitivity. An obesity-promoting high-fat diet (HFD) increased NOD2 in hepatocytes and adipocytes, and NOD2(-/-) mice have increased adipose tissue and liver inflammation and exacerbated insulin resistance during a HFD. This effect is independent of altered adiposity or NOD2 in hematopoietic-derived immune cells. Instead, increased metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance in NOD2(-/-) mice is associated with increased commensal bacterial translocation from the gut into adipose tissue and liver. An intact PGN-NOD2 sensing system regulated gut mucosal bacterial colonization and a metabolic tissue dysbiosis that is a potential trigger for increased metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance. Gut dysbiosis in HFD-fed NOD2(-/-) mice is an independent and transmissible factor that contributes to metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance when transferred to WT, germ-free mice. These findings warrant scrutiny of bacterial component detection, dysbiosis, and protective immune responses in the links between inflammatory gut and metabolic diseases, including diabetes. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.EMBO Molecular Medicine 02/2015; DOI:10.15252/emmm.201404169 · 8.25 Impact Factor