The effects of fluconazole and cytokines on human mononuclear cells.
ABSTRACT Candida infections are common infections and fluconazole is one of the most frequently administered antifungal agents in their treatment. The resistance developed against antifungal agents has necessitated the improvement of new treatments. This study focuses on the investigation of the effect of fluconazole and cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on chemokine production and anticandidal activity of human monocytes. In the study it was observed that GM-CSF caused an increase in candidacidal activity of monocytes. Anticandidal activity of GM-CSF + IFN-gamma combination was not found to be more effective than GM-CSF or IFN-gamma alone. The presence of cytokine and fluconazole caused an increase in the levels of CCL3 and CCL4 chemokines. Accordingly, it was considered that chemokines could contribute to the efficacy of fluconazole in C. albicans infections. Besides, in order to strengthen the immune system some cytokines might be used in addition to antifungal agents for the treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Piperaceae is a family of tropical plants known to have antifungal, antibacterial, tumour-inhibitory, antiviral, antioxidant, molluscicidal and leishmanicidal activities. In this work, extracts and fractions from aerial parts of Piper abutiloides (Piperaceae), a traditional medicinal plant, were evaluated against the fungal species Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans and Sporothrix schenckii. The results have shown that the antifungal activity of this plant can be concentrated in the hexanic fraction after partitioning its hydroalcoholic extract between hexane and 90% aqueous methanol. The chromatographic fractionation of the bioactive part was monitored with a bioautographic assay using C. glabrata, and allowed the isolation of three antifungal compounds: pseudodillapiol, eupomatenoid-6 and conocarpan. These compounds presented different potencies against the fungi tested, with the strongest effect being observed for eupomatenoid-6 against C. glabrata, which presented a minimal inhibitory concentration value of 0.3 microg spot(-1). Conocarpan showed antifungal activity without apparent cytotoxic effect on normal human lymphocytes, as assessed by the proliferation assay with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with phytohaemaglutinin. This work reveals for the first time the occurrence of these compounds in P. abutiloides and justifies further studies to clarify their mechanisms of action.Mycoses 01/2009; 52(6):499-506. · 1.28 Impact Factor