Article

Cognitive Impairment in Late-Life Generalized Anxiety Disorder

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 3.52). 08/2007; 15(8):673-9. DOI: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e31803111f2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study sought to characterize cognitive functioning in elderly patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), as compared with normal comparison subjects and patients with major depression.
The cognitive functioning in GAD (N=19) was assessed with the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and across specific domains of naming, executive ability, and memory, in comparison with late-life major depressive disorder (MDD; N=68) and versus no psychiatric illness (N=40).
In comparison to healthy normal comparison subjects, anxious subjects were impaired on measures of short-term and delayed memory. Depressed subjects also performed worse than normal comparison subjects on delayed memory, as well as in naming. Anxious subjects did not differ significantly from depressed subjects in any measure of cognitive function.
In this preliminary study, anxious subjects displayed cognitive impairments in short-term memory; while depressed patients compared to normal comparison subjects showed executive dysfunction and more general cognitive impairments not evident in anxious subjects. Studies of neuropsychological function in elderly anxious subjects may be informative in developing treatment interventions that mitigate cognitive dysfunction and illuminate the course of illness and underlying neural pathways.

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    • "On the first day, the clinical parameters were evaluated by an expert physiatrist, by applying the following tests: The Hoehn and Yahr Rating Scale (H&Y) (Hoehn & Yahr, 1967; Goetz et al., 2004) which registered the stage of the disease; the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the UPDRS (Fahn & Elton, 1987) was used to define the severity of PD. Anxiety levels and symptoms of depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD, Brazilian version; Mondolo et al., 2006), because these are factors that can influence the results of cognitive tests (Garcia et al., 2006; Mantella et al., 2007) (Table 1). Moreover, on the same day, the American Alliance for Health Physical Education Recreation and Dance Figure 1. "
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    DESCRIPTION: This study investigated the effect of a multimodal exercise program on executive functions and memory in people with Parkinson’s disease, taking into account disease severity and gender. Twenty-three patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) were evaluated before and after a 6-month exercise program to improve executive functions and memory. We observed the effects of the intervention on executive functions (ability to abstract: p = .01), immediate memory (p = .04) and declarative episodic memory (p < .001). Women showed higher scores on declarative episodic memory (p = .03) than men, however there was no interaction between gender and the intervention. Regardless of sex and disease severity, these preliminary results indicate that the multimodal exercise seems to be effective in improving cognitive functions in patients with PD, suggesting that this program can be indicated as a preventive strategy to mitigate progressive cognitive deficits in the later stages of the disease.
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    • "On the first day, the clinical parameters were evaluated by an expert physiatrist, by applying the following tests: The Hoehn and Yahr Rating Scale (H&Y) (Hoehn & Yahr, 1967; Goetz et al., 2004) which registered the stage of the disease; the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the UPDRS (Fahn & Elton, 1987) was used to define the severity of PD. Anxiety levels and symptoms of depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD, Brazilian version; Mondolo et al., 2006), because these are factors that can influence the results of cognitive tests (Garcia et al., 2006; Mantella et al., 2007) (Table 1). Moreover, on the same day, the American Alliance for Health Physical Education Recreation and Dance Figure 1. "
    [Show description] [Hide description]
    DESCRIPTION: This study investigated the effect of a multimodal exercise program on executive functions and memory in people with Parkinson’s disease, taking into account disease severity and gender. Twenty-three patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) were evaluated before and after a 6-month exercise program to improve executive functions and memory. We observed the effects of the intervention on executive functions (ability to abstract: p = .01), immediate memory (p = .04) and declarative episodic memory (p < .001). Women showed higher scores on declarative episodic memory (p = .03) than men, however there was no interaction between gender and the intervention. Regardless of sex and disease severity, these preliminary results indicate that the multimodal exercise seems to be effective in improving cognitive functions in patients with PD, suggesting that this program can be indicated as a preventive strategy to mitigate progressive cognitive deficits in the later stages of the disease.
  • Source
    • "On the first day, the clinical parameters were evaluated by an expert physiatrist, by applying the following tests: The Hoehn and Yahr Rating Scale (H&Y) (Hoehn & Yahr, 1967; Goetz et al., 2004) which registered the stage of the disease; the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the UPDRS (Fahn & Elton, 1987) was used to define the severity of PD. Anxiety levels and symptoms of depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD, Brazilian version; Mondolo et al., 2006), because these are factors that can influence the results of cognitive tests (Garcia et al., 2006; Mantella et al., 2007) (Table 1). Moreover, on the same day, the American Alliance for Health Physical Education Recreation and Dance Figure 1. "
    [Show description] [Hide description]
    DESCRIPTION: This study investigated the effect of a multimodal exercise program on executive functions and memory in people with Parkinson’s disease, taking into account disease severity and gender. Twenty-three patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) were evaluated before and after a 6-month exercise program to improve executive functions and memory. We observed the effects of the intervention on executive functions (ability to abstract: p = .01), immediate memory (p = .04) and declarative episodic memory (p < .001). Women showed higher scores on declarative episodic memory (p = .03) than men, however there was no interaction between gender and the intervention. Regardless of sex and disease severity, these preliminary results indicate that the multimodal exercise seems to be effective in improving cognitive functions in patients with PD, suggesting that this program can be indicated as a preventive strategy to mitigate progressive cognitive deficits in the later stages of the disease.