Article

Daily survival rates and dispersal of Aedes aegypti females in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Laboratório de Transmissores de Hematozoários, Departamento de Entomologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene (Impact Factor: 2.74). 04/2007; 76(4):659-65.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Daily survival rates, life expectancy, dispersal, and parity are important components of vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti. These parameters were estimated for mosquito populations from a slum and a suburban district in Rio de Janeiro, during the wet and dry seasons in 2005. In each mark-release-recapture experiment, three cohorts of dust-marked Ae. aegypti females were released. Recaptures were carried out daily in randomly selected houses, using backpack aspirators, adult traps, and sticky ovitraps. Recapture varied between 6.81% and 14.26%. Daily survival was estimated by fitting two alternative models: exponential and nonlinear models with correction for the removal of individuals. Slum area presented higher survival and parity rates (68.5%). Dispersal rates were higher in the suburban area, where a maximum dispersal of 363 m was observed. Results suggest intense risk of dengue epidemic, particularly in the urban area.

Full-text

Available from: Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas, Jun 04, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
125 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Strategies to minimize dengue transmission commonly rely on vector control, which aims to maintain Ae. aegypti density below a theoretical threshold. Mosquito abundance is traditionally estimated from mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiments, which lack proper analysis regarding accurate vector spatial distribution and population density. Recently proposed strategies to control vector-borne diseases involve replacing the susceptible wild population by genetically modified individuals' refractory to the infection by the pathogen. Accurate measurements of mosquito abundance in time and space are required to optimize the success of such interventions. In this paper, we present a hierarchical probabilistic model for the estimation of population abundance and spatial distribution from typical mosquito MRR experiments, with direct application to the planning of these new control strategies. We perform a Bayesian analysis using the model and data from two MRR experiments performed in a neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during both low- and high-dengue transmission seasons. The hierarchical model indicates that mosquito spatial distribution is clustered during the winter (0.99 mosquitoes/premise 95% CI: 0.80-1.23) and more homogeneous during the high abundance period (5.2 mosquitoes/premise 95% CI: 4.3-5.9). The hierarchical model also performed better than the commonly used Fisher-Ford's method, when using simulated data. The proposed model provides a formal treatment of the sources of uncertainty associated with the estimation of mosquito abundance imposed by the sampling design. Our approach is useful in strategies such as population suppression or the displacement of wild vector populations by refractory Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes, since the invasion dynamics have been shown to follow threshold conditions dictated by mosquito abundance. The presence of spatially distributed abundance hotspots is also formally addressed under this modeling framework and its knowledge deemed crucial to predict the fate of transmission control strategies based on the replacement of vector populations.
    PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0123794. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123794 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia is currently being trialled as a biocontrol agent in several countries to reduce dengue transmission. Wolbachia can invade and spread to infect all individuals within wild mosquito populations, but requires a high rate of maternal transmission, strong cytoplasmic incompatibility and low fitness costs in the host in order to do so. Additionally, extensive differences in climate, field-release protocols, urbanization level and human density amongst the sites where this bacterium has been deployed have limited comparison and analysis of Wolbachia's invasive potential. We examined key phenotypic effects of the wMel Wolbachia strain in laboratory Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Brazilian genetic background to characterize its invasive potential. We show that the wMel strain causes strong cytoplasmic incompatibility, a high rate of maternal transmission and has no evident detrimental effect on host fecundity or fertility. Next, to understand the effects of different urban landscapes on the likelihood of mosquito survival, we performed mark-release-recapture experiments using Wolbachia-uninfected Brazilian mosquitoes in two areas of Rio de Janeiro where Wolbachia will be deployed in the future. We characterized the mosquito populations in relation to the socio-demographic conditions at these sites, and at three other future release areas. We then constructed mathematical models using both the laboratory and field data, and used these to describe the influence of urban environmental conditions on the likelihood that the Wolbachia infection frequency could reach 100% following mosquito release. We predict successful invasion at all five field sites, however the conditions by which this occurs vary greatly between sites, and are strongly influenced by the size of the local mosquito population. Through analysis of laboratory, field and mathematical data, we show that the wMel strain of Wolbachia possesses the characteristics required to spread effectively in different urban socio-demographic environments in Rio de Janeiro, including those where mosquito releases from the Eliminate Dengue Program will take place.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 04/2015; 9(4). DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003689 · 4.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dengue is the most common arboviral infection of humans and is a public health burden in more than 100 countries. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes stably infected with strains of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia are resistant to dengue virus (DENV) infection and are being tested in field trials. To mimic field conditions, we experimentally assessed the vector competence of A. aegypti carrying the Wolbachia strains wMel and wMelPop after challenge with viremic blood from dengue patients. We found that wMelPop conferred strong resistance to DENV infection of mosquito abdomen tissue and largely prevented disseminated infection. wMel conferred less resistance to infection of mosquito abdomen tissue, but it did reduce the prevalence of mosquitoes with infectious saliva. A mathematical model of DENV transmission incorporating the dynamics of viral infection in humans and mosquitoes was fitted to the data collected. Model predictions suggested that wMel would reduce the basic reproduction number, R0, of DENV transmission by 66 to 75%. Our results suggest that establishment of wMelPop-infected A. aegypti at a high frequency in a dengue-endemic setting would result in the complete abatement of DENV transmission. Establishment of wMel-infected A. aegypti is also predicted to have a substantial effect on transmission that would be sufficient to eliminate dengue in low or moderate transmission settings but may be insufficient to achieve complete control in settings where R0 is high. These findings develop a framework for selecting Wolbachia strains for field releases and for calculating their likely impact. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Science translational medicine 03/2015; 7(279-279):279ra37. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.3010370 · 14.41 Impact Factor