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    ABSTRACT: Multiple-valued memory operation is one of the keys for future high-density memory devices since it significantly increases memory capacity per unit area. We previously reported a single electron memory device that utilizes traps in a silicon nitride (SiN) layer as the memory node and an ultra-sensitive Al/AlO<sub>x</sub> single-electron transistor (SET) for readout (Sunarmura et al., 1999). In this work, we propose a new device structure in which a new layered structure is designed so that only electrons can participate in the device characteristics. With this new device structure, we successfully achieve multiple-valued single-electron memory operation of up to nine values for the first time. An oscillating behavior in SET output current (I<sub>SET</sub>) during write/read processes due to electron trapping/detrapping at the traps is used to represent multiple values
    Device Research Conference, 2000. Conference Digest. 58th DRC; 02/2000
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    ABSTRACT: Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is a frequent cause of liver disease and acute liver failure, particularly in patients treated with multiple drugs. Several antibacterial drugs have the potential to cause severe liver injury and failure. This article aims to increase the awareness and understanding of drug induced liver injury (DILI) due to antibacterial drugs. It reviews the pattern of antibacterial DILI and provides details on molecular mechanisms and toxicogenomics, as well as clinical data based on epidemiology studies. Certain antibacterial drugs are more frequently linked to hepatotoxicity than others. Therefore, the hepatotoxic potential of tetracyclines,sulfonamides, tuberculostatic agents, macrolides, quinolones,and beta-lactams are discussed in more detail. Efforts to improve the early detection of DILI and the acquisition of high-quality epidemiological data are pivotal for increased patient safety.
    Infection 02/2010; 38(1):3-11. DOI:10.1007/s15010-009-9179-z · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoliposomal technology is a promising drug delivery system that could be employed to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of clearance and distribution in ocular drug delivery to the retina. We developed a nanoscale version of an anionic, cholesterol-fusing liposome that can encapsulate therapeutic levels of minocycline capable of drug delivery. We demonstrate that size extrusion followed by size-exclusion chromatography can form a stable 80-nm liposome that encapsulates minocycline at a concentration of 450 ± 30 μM, which is 2% to 3% of loading material. More importantly, these nontoxic nanoliposomes can then deliver 40% of encapsulated minocycline to the retina after a subconjunctival injection in the STZ model of diabetes. Efficacy of therapeutic drug delivery was assessed via transcriptomic and proteomic biomarker panels. For both the free minocycline and encapsulated minocycline treatments, proinflammatory markers of diabetes were downregulated at both the messenger RNA and protein levels, validating the utility of biomarker panels for the assessment of ocular drug delivery vehicles.
    Nanomedicine: nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 03/2012; 9(1). DOI:10.1016/j.nano.2012.03.004 · 6.16 Impact Factor
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