To elucidate mechanisms by which left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) increases the risk of atherosclerotic heart disease, we sought to determine whether LVH is independently associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the general population. The Dallas Heart Study is a population-based sample in which 2633 individuals underwent cardiac MRI to measure LV structure, electron beam CT to measure CAC, and measurement of plasma CRP. We used univariate and multivariable analyses to determine whether LV mass and markers of concentric LV hypertrophy or dilation were associated with CAC and CRP. Increasing quartiles of LV mass indexed to fat-free mass, LV wall thickness, and concentricity, but not LV volume, were associated with CAC in both men and women (P<0.001). After adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and statin use, LV wall thickness and concentricity remained associated with CAC in linear regression (P<0.001 for each). These associations were particularly robust in blacks. LV wall thickness and concentricity were also associated with elevated CRP levels (P=0.001 for both) in gender-stratified univariate analyses, although these associations did not persist in multivariable analysis. In conclusion, concentric LVH is an independent risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis. LVH is also associated with an inflammatory state as reflected in elevated CRP levels, although this relationship appears to be mediated by comorbid conditions. These data likely explain in part why individuals with LVH are at increased risk for myocardial infarction.
"The acute-phase protein CRP has been studied intensively in the context of LV mass and geometry ; however, study samples and designs have varied widely, and findings have been inconsistent  . In aggregate, these studies suggest that association between CRP and LV mass is likely indirect, perhaps reflecting the association of body size and LV mass. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomarkers of inflammation and hemostasis have been associated with left ventricular (LV) mass. We studied relationships of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL6), D-dimer, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), soluble tumor necrosis factor type 1 receptor (sTNFR1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), factor VIII, fibrinogen, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) with LV mass in an asymptomatic population. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to characterize LV mass; biomarkers were measured using standardized protocols (N = 763 to 4979). Adjusted models were used to associate each biomarker with LV mass while correcting for potential confounding.
LV mass was associated with many biomarkers after adjustment for demographic characteristics and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Although the demographic and risk factor adjustments attenuated the association of CRP and IL6 with LV mass, further adjustment for weight changed regression coefficients from positive to negative for CRP and IL6 for LV mass. sTM, Factor VIII, and vWF were directly associated with LV mass in fully-adjusted models. For sTNFR1, sICAM-1, D-dimer, fibrinogen, and PAI-1, adjustment for risk factors and weight rendered associations with LV mass nonsignificant.
In this large cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease, several hemostasis and inflammation markers were associated with LV mass. The unusual finding of a negative relationship of CRP and IL6 with LV mass only after adjustment for weight suggests that the effects of inflammation on LV mass are strongly influenced by obesity.
International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics 01/2011; 2(4):391-400. · 1.30 Impact Factor
"Interestingly, despite the documented link between elevated CRP and left ventricular mass, in this study there was no significant correlation between these two variables. However, a recent study by Mehta et al delineated that although LVH was associated with an inflammatory state as reflected in elevated CRP levels , this relationship appears to be mediated by comorbid conditions including hypertension, which was absent from our cohort. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is linked to increased left ventricular mass, an independent predictor of mortality. As a result of this, understanding the determinants of left ventricular mass in the setting of obesity has both therapeutic and prognostic implications. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance our goal was to elucidate the main predictors of left ventricular mass in severely obese subjects free of additional cardiovascular risk factors.
38 obese (BMI 37.8 +/- 6.9 kg/m2) and 16 normal weight controls subjects, (BMI 21.7 +/- 1.8 kg/m2), all without cardiovascular risk factors, underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess left ventricular mass, left ventricular volumes and visceral fat mass. Left ventricular mass was then compared to serum and anthropometric markers of obesity linked to left ventricular mass, i.e. height, age, blood pressure, total fat mass, visceral fat mass, lean mass, serum leptin and fasting insulin level.
As expected, obesity was associated with significantly increased left ventricular mass (126 +/- 27 vs 90 +/- 20 g; p < 0.001). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that over 75% of the cross sectional variation in left ventricular mass can be explained by lean body mass (beta = 0.51, p < 0.001), LV stroke volume (beta = 0.31 p = 0.001) and abdominal visceral fat mass (beta = 0.20, p = 0.02), all of which showed highly significant independent associations with left ventricular mass (overall R2 = 0.77).
The left ventricular hypertrophic response to obesity in the absence of additional cardiovascular risk factors is mainly attributable to increases in lean body mass, LV stroke volume and visceral fat mass. In view of the well documented link between obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy and mortality, these findings have potentially important prognostic and therapeutic implications for primary and secondary prevention.
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 05/2009; 11(1):9. DOI:10.1186/1532-429X-11-9 · 4.56 Impact Factor
Mikko T Pänkäläinen, Tuomas V Kerola, Jukka J Hintikka
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