Parenting and adolescent antisocial behavior and depression: evidence of genotype x parenting environment interaction.
ABSTRACT Little is known about the interplay of genotypes and malleable risk factors in influencing adolescent psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Information on these processes is crucial in designing programs for the prevention of psychiatric disorders.
To assess whether latent genetic factors and measured parent-child relationships interact (G x E) in predicting adolescent antisocial behavior and depression.
We characterized risk of antisocial behavior and depression in adolescents by means of a genetically informed design. We used in-home questionnaire and observational measures of adolescent outcomes and environmental moderators (parenting), and a latent variable behavior genetic analytic model.
A nationally distributed sample recruited from random-digit dialing and national market panels.
A total of 720 families with at least 2 children, 9 through 18 years old, stratified by genetic relatedness (monozygotic and dizygotic twins, full biological siblings in nondivorced and stepfamilies, and half-siblings and biologically unrelated siblings in stepfamilies).
Antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms.
There was an interaction of genotype and both parental negativity and low warmth predicting overall antisocial behavior, as well as aggressive and nonaggressive forms of antisocial behavior, but not depression. Genetic influence was greater for adolescent antisocial behavior when parenting was more negative or less warm. Genotype-environment correlation was partialled out in the analysis and thus did not account for the results.
This study demonstrates, on the basis of careful measurement and appropriate analytic methods, that a continuous measure of parenting in the normative range moderates the influence of genotype on antisocial behavior.
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ABSTRACT: The current study examined interactions among genetic influences and children's early environments on the development of externalizing behaviors from 18 months to 6 years of age. Participants included 233 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Genetic influences were assessed by birth parent temperamental regulation. Early environments included both family (overreactive parenting) and out-of-home factors (center-based Early Care and Education; ECE). Overreactive parenting predicted more child externalizing behaviors. Attending center-based ECE was associated with increasing externalizing behaviors only for children with genetic liability for dysregulation. Additionally, children who were at risk for externalizing behaviors due to both genetic variability and exposure to center-based ECE were more sensitive to the effects of overreactive parenting on externalizing behavior than other children.International Journal of Behavioral Development 01/2014; 38(1):70-80. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although heritable, externalizing disorders have a number of robust associations with several environmental risk factors, including family, school and peer contexts. To account for these associations, we integrate a behavioral genetic perspective with principles of a developmental cascade theory of antisocial behavior. The major environmental contexts associated with child externalizing problems are reviewed, as are the processes of gene–environment interplay underlying these associations. Throughout, we discuss implications for prevention and intervention. Three major approaches designed to reduce child externalizing behavior are reviewed. Prevention and intervention programs appear to be most successful when they target individuals or communities most at risk for developing externalizing disorders, rather than applied universally. We end by commenting on areas in need of additional research concerning environmental influences on persistent externalizing behaviors.Clinical Practice (Future Medicine). 09/2014; 11(5):537.
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ABSTRACT: Researchers have become increasingly interested in uncovering how genetic factors work together with the peer environment in influencing development. This article offers an overview of the state of knowledge. It first describes the different types of gene‐environment correlations (rGE) and gene‐environment interactions (GxE) that are of relevance for understanding the role of peer relations as well as the two main methodologies of genetically informed research, that is, the quantitative genetic approach and molecular genetics. This is followed by an overview of recent studies that examined different mechanisms of gene‐environment interplay involving peer relations in childhood and adolescence. The article concludes with an outline of future directions in genetically informed peer relations research as well as the implications for theory and practice.Journal of Research on Adolescence 09/2012; 22(3). · 1.99 Impact Factor