Characterization of tccP2 carried by atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) comprise an important group of paediatric pathogens. Atypical EPEC have reservoirs in farm and domestic animals where they can be either commensal or pathogenic; serogroup O26 is dominant in humans and animals. Central to intestinal colonization by EPEC is the translocation of the type III secretion system effector Tir into enterocytes, which following phosphorylation (Tir-Yp) recruits Nck to activate the N-WASP actin signalling cascade. The authors have recently shown that typical EPEC strains, belonging to the EPEC-2 lineage, carry a tir gene encoding Tir-Yp and can also use the alternative TccP2 actin-signalling cascade. The aim of this study was to determine if tccP2 is found in atypical EPEC isolated from human and farm animals. tccP2 was found at a frequency of 41% in non-O26 EPEC isolates and in 82.3% of the O26 strains. TccP2 of human and animal strains show high level of sequence identity. It is shown that most strains carry a tir gene encoding Tir-Yp. In addition the authors identified two new variants of tir genes in EPEC O104:H12 and NT:H19 strains.
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ABSTRACT: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a human pathogen that attaches to intestinal epithelial cells and causes chronic watery diarrhea. A close relative, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), causes severe bloody diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Both pathogens insert a protein, Tir, into the host cell plasma membrane where it binds intimin, the outer membrane ligand of EPEC and EHEC. This interaction triggers a cascade of signaling events within the host cell and ultimately leads to the formation of an actin-rich pedestal upon which the pathogen resides. Pedestal formation is critical in mediating EPEC- and EHEC-induced diarrhea, yet very little is known about its composition and organization. In EPEC, pedestal formation requires Tir tyrosine 474 phosphorylation. In EHEC Tir is not tyrosine phosphorylated, yet the pedestals appear similar. The composition of the EPEC and EHEC pedestals was analyzed by examining numerous cytoskeletal, signaling, and adapter proteins. Of the 25 proteins examined, only two, calpactin and CD44, were recruited to the site of bacterial attachment independently of Tir. Several others, including ezrin, talin, gelsolin, and tropomyosin, were recruited to the site of EPEC attachment independently of Tir tyrosine 474 phosphorylation but required Tir in the host membrane. The remaining proteins were recruited to the pedestal in a manner dependent on Tir tyrosine phosphorylation or were not recruited at all. Differences were also found between the EPEC and EHEC pedestals: the adapter proteins Grb2 and CrkII were recruited to the EPEC pedestal but were absent in the EHEC pedestal. These results demonstrate that although EPEC and EHEC recruit similar cytoskeletal proteins, there are also significant differences in pedestal composition.Infection and Immunity 06/2001; 69(5):3315-22. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from faecal samples taken from cattle, sheep and pigs at slaughter in England and Wales. Isolates (n = 1227) selected at random from this collection were each hybridised in colony dot-blot experiments with an eae gene probe that presumptively identified attaching-effacing E. coli (AEEC). Of the 99 (8.1%) eae positive isolates 72 were of ovine origin, 24 were of bovine origin and three of porcine origin. None were typed as O157:H7 whereas 78 were assigned to 23 serogroups and 21 were untypable. The most frequently isolated eae positive serogroups were O156 (10), O26 (8), O103 (8), O108 (7) O56 (6) and O168 (6) of which serogroups O103 and O156 only were recovered from all three animal species. In tissue culture adherence assays, 36 representatives of eae positive isolates of all serogroups and host of origin tested induced intimate attachment with varying degrees of actin accumulation and pedestal formation in the HEp-2 cells. The identity of the eae type for these 36 was determined by specific PCR and the most prevalent intimin types were eaebeta (15), eaegamma (12) and eae (4). Isolates were examined by PCR for the presence of other virulence determinants and five possessed stx1 but none possessed stx2. One O115 eae isolate possessed cnf1 and 2, hlyA, etpD and katP genes which is a novel combination of virulence determinants.Veterinary Microbiology 09/2004; 102(1-2):43-53. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) induce characteristic attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on epithelial cells. This event is mediated, in part, by binding of the bacterial outer membrane protein, intimin, to a second EPEC protein, Tir (translocated intimin receptor), which is exported by the bacteria and integrated into the host cell plasma membrane. In this study, we have localized the intimin-binding domain of Tir to a central 107-amino-acid region, designated Tir-M. We provide evidence that both the amino- and carboxy-termini of Tir are located within the host cell. In addition, using immunogold labelling electron microscopy, we have confirmed that intimin can bind independently to host cells even in the absence of Tir. This Tir-independent interaction and the ability of EPEC to induce A/E lesions requires an intact lectin-like module residing at the carboxy-terminus of the intimin polypeptide. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and gel overlays, we show that intimin can bind both Tir and Tir-M even when the lectin-like domain is disrupted. These data provide strong evidence that intimin interacts not only with Tir but also in a lectin-like manner with a host cell intimin receptor.Molecular Microbiology 05/1999; 32(1):151-8. · 4.96 Impact Factor