ATP is an important excitatory neurotransmitter and adenosine acts as a neuromodulatory structure inhibiting neurotransmitters release in the central nervous system. Since the ecto-nucleotidase cascade that hydrolyzes ATP to adenosine is involved in the control of brain functions and previous studies realized in our laboratory have recently reported that acute administration of Arg decreases the NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase activities of rat blood serum, in the present study we investigated the effect of arginine administration on NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase activities by synaptosomes from hippocampus of rats. First, sixty-days-old rats were treated with a single or a triple intraperitoneal injection of arginine (0.8 g/Kg) or an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline solution (control) and were killed 1 h later. Second, rats received an intracerebroventricular injection of 1.5 mM arginine solution or saline (5 microL) and were killed 1 h later. We also tested the in vitro effect of arginine (0.1-1.5 mM) on nucleotide hydrolysis in synaptosomes from rat hippocampus. Results showed that intraperitoneal arginine administration did not alter nucleotide hydrolysis. On the other hand, arginine administered intracerebroventricularly reduced ATP (32%), ADP (30%) and AMP (21%) hydrolysis, respectively. In addition, arginine added to the incubation medium, provoked a decrease on ATP (19%), ADP (17%) and AMP (23%) hydrolysis, respectively. Furthermore, kinetic studies showed that the inhibitory effect of arginine was uncompetitive in relation to ATP, ADP and AMP. In conclusion, according to our results it seems reasonable to postulate that arginine alters the cascade involved in the extracellular degradation of ATP to adenosine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides act as signaling molecules involved in a wide spectrum of biological effects. Their levels are controlled by a complex cell surface-located group of enzymes called ectonucleotidases. There are four major families of ectonucleotidases, nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases/CD39), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (E-NPPs), alkaline phosphatases and ecto-5'-nucleotidase. In the last few years, substantial progress has been made toward the molecular identification of members of the ectonucleotidase families and their enzyme structures and functions. In this review, there is an emphasis on the involvement of NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase activities in disease processes in several tissues and cell types. Brief background information is given about the general characteristics of these enzymes, followed by a discussion of their roles in thromboregulatory events in diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and cancer, as well as in pathological conditions where platelets are less responsive, such as in chronic renal failure. In addition, immunomodulation and cell-cell interactions involving these enzymes are considered, as well as ATP and ADP hydrolysis under different clinical conditions related with alterations in the immune system, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) and infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Finally, changes in ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis induced by inborn errors of metabolism, seizures and epilepsy are discussed in order to highlight the importance of these enzymes in the control of neuronal activity in pathological conditions. Despite advances made toward understanding the molecular structure of ectonucleotidases, much more investigation will be necessary to entirely grasp their role in physiological and pathological conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a disorder of creatine metabolism characterized by low plasma creatine concentrations in combination with elevated guanidinoacetate (GAA) concentrations. The aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro effect of guanidinoacetate in NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase activities in the synaptosomes, platelets and blood of rats. The results showed that in synaptosomes the NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase activities were inhibited significantly in the presence of GAA at concentrations of 50, 100, 150 and 200 microM (P < 0.05). However, in platelets GAA at the same concentrations caused a significant increase in the activities of these two enzymes (P < 0.05). In relation to the acetylcholinesterase activity, GAA caused a significant inhibition in the activity of this enzyme in blood at concentrations of 150 and 200 microM (P < 0.05), but did not alter the acetylcholinesterase activity in synaptosomes from the cerebral cortex. Our results suggest that alterations caused by GAA in the activities of these enzymes may contribute to the understanding of the neurological dysfunction of GAMT-deficient patients.
Neurochemical Research 06/2008; 33(6):1129-37. DOI:10.1007/s11064-007-9561-0 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proline is an amino acid with an essential role for primary metabolism and physiologic functions. Hyperprolinemia results from the deficiency of specific enzymes for proline catabolism, leading to tissue accumulation of this amino acid. Hyperprolinemic patients can present neurological symptoms and brain abnormalities, whose aetiopathogenesis is poorly understood. This review addresses some of the findings obtained, mainly from animal studies, indicating that high proline levels may be associated to neuropathophysiology of some disorders. In this context, it has been suggested that energy metabolism deficit, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, kinase creatine, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, lipid content, as well as purinergic and cholinergic systems are involved in the effect of proline on brain damage and spatial memory deficit. The discussion focuses on the relatively low antioxidant defenses of the brain and the vulnerability of neural tissue to reactive species. This offers new perspectives for potential therapeutic strategies for this condition, which may include the early use of appropriate antioxidants as a novel adjuvant therapy, besides the usual treatment based on special diets poor in proline.
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