The potential of a 2Tone Trainer to help patients use their metered-dose inhalers.
ABSTRACT Many patients have problems using the correct inhalation technique when they use their metered-dose inhalers (MDIs). We have investigated whether a training aid (2Tone Trainer [2T]; Canday Medical Ltd; Newmarket, UK) helps to maintain the correct inhaler technique after patients leave the clinic
Ethics committee approval was obtained, and patients gave consent. Asthmatic patients who had been prescribed an MDI had their inhalation technique assessed. Their peak inhalation flow (PIF) when using their MDI, FEV(1), and the Juniper asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ) score were measured. Those patients using the recommended MDI technique were the good-technique (GT) group. The remainder were randomized to receive verbal training (VT) or VT plus the 2T to improve their MDI technique. All patients returned 6 weeks later.
There were 36, 35, and 36 asthmatic patients, respectively, who completed the GT, VT, and 2T procedures. FEV1 did not change within all groups between visit 1 and 2. PIF and AQLQ score did not change in the GT group. In the VT and 2T groups, the AQLQ score increased by mean differences of 0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14 to 0.53; p < 0.001) and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.86; p < 0.001). At visit 1, all patients in the VT and 2T groups inhaled > 90 L/min decreasing to 12 patients and 1 patient, respectively, at visit 2 (p < 0.001 both groups). The overall changes in the 2T group for PIF and AQLQ score, between visits 1 and 2, were significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the corresponding changes in the VT group.
The 2T helps patients to maintain the recommended MDI technique posttraining with improvements in AQLQ score.
Conference Paper: Analysis of stress in power bipolar devices during inductive turn-off[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The turnoff transients under inductive load of bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and bipolar-mode field effect transistors (BMFETs) have been calculated, with the aim of investigating the factors which limit the reverse bias safe operating areas of these devices. Results of 2D simulations which include impact ionization in a self-consistent way show that different device structures exhibit different voltage limitations at high currents, and that, for the same maximum voltage, large differences in the power density distribution can account for the difference in ruggedness which is observed experimentally. The inclusion of a buffer layer in the BJT improves its turnoff performance, provided that this layer is sufficiently thick and doped. In BMFETs the sustaining voltage locus is vertical, and there is no sensitive power concentration at the junction epilayer-substrate, even if no buffer layer is includedPower Semiconductor Devices and ICs, 1993. ISPSD '93., Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on; 06/1993
Conference Paper: Prospects for international TVRO growth[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Summary form only given, as follows. With the introduction at the end of 1993 of the high EIRP INTELSAT VII/VIII-A satellites, the INTELSAT network is about to enter a new phase of dramatically increased capability. Voice, data and video services will become practical on global scale to much smaller ground terminals than ever before. A similar situation occurred in the United States in the late 1970s and, if the experience in the US is a reliable guide, this new capability will manifest itself as a major increase in the number of users of the INTELSAT network and the creation of new or greatly expanded markets. The author traces the development of these services in the US and estimates the potential for growth in other countriesTelesystems Conference, 1993. 'Commercial Applications and Dual-Use Technology', Conference Proceedings., National; 07/1993