In vivo altered unfolded protein response and apoptosis in livers from lipopolysaccharide-challenged cirrhotic rats.
ABSTRACT Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related unfolded protein response (UPR) is mediated by PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), ATF6 and IRE1. PERK phosphorylates eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2alpha (eIF2alpha) to attenuate protein synthesis, including in NF-kappaB-dependent antiapoptotic proteins. We hypothesized that an altered UPR in the liver may sensitize cirrhotic livers to LPS-induced, TNFalpha-mediated apoptosis. Thus, we examined in vivo UPR and NF-kappaB activity in livers from cirrhotic and normal LPS-challenged rats.
Livers were harvested in rats that did or did not receive LPS.
Under baseline conditions, no UPR was found in normal livers while PERK/eIF2alpha and ATF6 pathways were activated in cirrhotic livers. After LPS, in normal livers, the PERK/eIF2alpha pathway was transiently activated. ATF6 and IRE1 were activated. In cirrhotic livers, the PERK/eIF2alpha pathway remained elevated. ATF6 and IRE1 pathways were altered. LPS-induced, NF-kappaB-dependent antiapoptotic proteins increased in normal livers whereas their expression was blunted at the posttranscriptional level in cirrhotic livers.
Cirrhotic livers exhibit partial UPR activation in the basal state and full UPR, although altered, after LPS challenge. Sustained eIF2alpha phosphorylation, a hallmark of cirrhotic liver UPR, is associated with a lack of LPS-induced accumulation of NF-kappaB-dependent antiapoptotic proteins which may sensitize cirrhotic livers to LPS/TNFalpha-mediated apoptosis.
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia profoundly influences tumor development and response to therapy. While progress has been made in identifying individual gene products whose synthesis is altered under hypoxia, little is known about the mechanism by which hypoxia induces a global downregulation of protein synthesis. A critical step in the regulation of protein synthesis in response to stress is the phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2alpha on Ser51, which leads to inhibition of new protein synthesis. Here we report that exposure of human diploid fibroblasts and transformed cells to hypoxia led to phosphorylation of eIF2alpha, a modification that was readily reversed upon reoxygenation. Expression of a transdominant, nonphosphorylatable mutant allele of eIF2alpha attenuated the repression of protein synthesis under hypoxia. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident eIF2alpha kinase PERK was hyperphosphorylated upon hypoxic stress, and overexpression of wild-type PERK increased the levels of hypoxia-induced phosphorylation of eIF2alpha. Cells stably expressing a dominant-negative PERK allele and mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a homozygous deletion of PERK exhibited attenuated phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and reduced inhibition of protein synthesis in response to hypoxia. PERK(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts failed to phosphorylate eIF2alpha and exhibited lower survival after prolonged exposure to hypoxia than did wild-type fibroblasts. These results indicate that adaptation of cells to hypoxic stress requires activation of PERK and phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and suggest that the mechanism of hypoxia-induced translational attenuation may be linked to ER stress and the unfolded-protein response.Molecular and Cellular Biology 12/2002; 22(21):7405-16. · 5.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR) protects the cell against the stress of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have investigated here the contribution of the UPR transcription factors XBP-1, ATF6alpha, and ATF6beta to UPR target gene expression. Gene profiling of cell lines lacking these factors yielded several XBP-1-dependent UPR target genes, all of which appear to act in the ER. These included the DnaJ/Hsp40-like genes, p58(IPK), ERdj4, and HEDJ, as well as EDEM, protein disulfide isomerase-P5, and ribosome-associated membrane protein 4 (RAMP4), whereas expression of BiP was only modestly dependent on XBP-1. Surprisingly, given previous reports that enforced expression of ATF6alpha induced a subset of UPR target genes, cells deficient in ATF6alpha, ATF6beta, or both had minimal defects in upregulating UPR target genes by gene profiling analysis, suggesting the presence of compensatory mechanism(s) for ATF6 in the UPR. Since cells lacking both XBP-1 and ATF6alpha had significantly impaired induction of select UPR target genes and ERSE reporter activation, XBP-1 and ATF6alpha may serve partially redundant functions. No UPR target genes that required ATF6beta were identified, nor, in contrast to XBP-1 and ATF6alpha, did the activity of the UPRE or ERSE promoters require ATF6beta, suggesting a minor role for it during the UPR. Collectively, these results suggest that the IRE1/XBP-1 pathway is required for efficient protein folding, maturation, and degradation in the ER and imply the existence of subsets of UPR target genes as defined by their dependence on XBP-1. Further, our observations suggest the existence of additional, as-yet-unknown, key regulators of the UPR.Molecular and Cellular Biology 12/2003; 23(21):7448-59. · 5.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Both obesity and alcohol can cause oxidative stress, cytokine induction, and steatohepatitis. To determine the consequences of their combination, we compared the hepatic effects of moderate ethanol binges in lean and obese ob/ob mice. Mice received water or ethanol (2.5 g/kg) by gastric intubation daily for 4 days, and were killed 2 hours after the last administration. Some obese mice also received pentoxifylline, an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production, before each ethanol administration. In lean mice, these moderate ethanol doses did not increase plasma TNF-alpha and hepatic caspase-3 activity, but triggered some apoptotic hepatocytes. Naive ob/ob mice had a few necrotic and apoptotic hepatocytes, but exhibited little oxidative stress, possibly because of adaptive increases in manganese superoxide dismutase, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), mitochondrial cytochrome c, and mitochondrial DNA. Alcohol administration to ob/ob mice did not increase oxidative stress despite increased CYP2E1, but increased plasma TNF-alpha, further increased Hsp70, and profoundly decreased p65 nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) protein and DNA-binding activity in nuclear extracts. Caspase-3 was activated, and more apoptotic hepatocytes were found in intoxicated obese mice than naive obese mice. In intoxicated obese mice, pentoxifylline fully prevented the increase in plasma TNF-alpha the decrease in nuclear NF-kappaB activity, and the increase in hepatic caspase-3, and it also decreased hepatic triglycerides. In conclusion, obese mice develop adaptations that may limit oxidative stress. Moderate ethanol intoxication does not increase oxidative stress in obese mice, but increases TNF-alpha and also decreases nuclear NF-kappaB activity, thus unleashing the apoptotic effects of TNF-alpha.Hepatology 01/2006; 42(6):1280-90. · 12.00 Impact Factor