Glycemic control, diabetic status, and mortality in a heterogeneous population of critically ill patients before and during the era of intensive glycemic management: six and one-half years experience at a university-affiliated community hospital.
ABSTRACT Hyperglycemia occurs commonly in acutely and critically ill patients and has been associated with adverse clinical consequences. An emerging body of literature describes the beneficial effects of intensive glycemic monitoring and treatment (tight glycemic control, or "TGC"). This manuscript reviews the experience of a cohort of 5365 non-cardiac surgery patients admitted to the adult intensive care unit of a university-affiliated community hospital before and after implementation of TGC. Significant decreases in mortality occurred among medical and surgical patients during the TGC era, but not among trauma patients. Non-diabetics who sustained hyperglycemia had an especially high risk of mortality, and benefited greatly from treatment. Further investigations will be needed to identify the most appropriate glycemic targets for different populations of patients.
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ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia is common in critically ill patients, even in those without diabetes mellitus. Aggressive glycemic control may reduce mortality in this population. However, the relationship between mortality, the control of hyperglycemia, and the administration of exogenous insulin is unclear. To determine whether blood glucose level or quantity of insulin administered is associated with reduced mortality in critically ill patients. Single-center, prospective, observational study of 531 patients (median age, 64 years) newly admitted over the first 6 months of 2002 to an adult intensive care unit (ICU) in a UK national referral center for cardiorespiratory surgery and medicine. The primary end point was intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. Secondary end points were hospital mortality, ICU and hospital length of stay, and predicted threshold glucose level associated with risk of death. Of 531 patients admitted to the ICU, 523 underwent analysis of their glycemic control. Twenty-four-hour control of blood glucose levels was variable. Rates of ICU and hospital mortality were 5.2% and 5.7%, respectively; median lengths of stay were 1.8 (interquartile range, 0.9-3.7) days and 6 (interquartile range, 4.5-8.3) days, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that increased administration of insulin was positively and significantly associated with ICU mortality (odds ratio, 1.02 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.04] at a prevailing glucose level of 111-144 mg/dL [6.1-8.0 mmol/L] for a 1-IU/d increase), suggesting that mortality benefits are attributable to glycemic control rather than increased administration of insulin. Also, the regression models suggest that a mortality benefit accrues below a predicted threshold glucose level of 144 to 200 mg/dL (8.0-11.1 mmol/L), with a speculative upper limit of 145 mg/dL (8.0 mmol/L) for the target blood glucose level. Increased insulin administration is positively associated with death in the ICU regardless of the prevailing blood glucose level. Thus, control of glucose levels rather than of absolute levels of exogenous insulin appear to account for the mortality benefit associated with intensive insulin therapy demonstrated by others.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 11/2003; 290(15):2041-7. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemic brain injury is the third-leading cause of death among Americans and the leading cause of serious disability. Based on studies of animal models, a substantial amount of experimental evidence shows that hyperglycemia at the onset of brain ischemia worsens postischemic neurologic outcome. Consistent with these observations, hyperglycemia also is associated with a worsening of postischemic brain injury in humans. In humans, however, data are often difficult to interpret because of problems in determining the timing of hyperglycemia relative to a critical ischemic event and in elucidating the effect of coexisting pathophysiologic processes (for example, a stress response) on outcome. Glucose modulation of neurologic injury is observed when ischemia is either global (for example, that accompanying cardiac arrest or severe systemic hypotension) or focal (for example, that accompanying thrombotic or embolic stroke). Toxicity is probably the result of an intracellular lactic acidosis. Specifically, the associated hydrogen ions are injurious to neurons and glia. On the basis of these factors, we recommend diligent monitoring of blood glucose concentrations in patients who are at increased risk for new-onset, ongoing, or recurring cerebral ischemia. In such patients, the use of fluid infusions, corticosteroid drugs, and insulin, as well as stress management, should be tailored to treat preexisting hyperglycemia and prevent new-onset hyperglycemia. Maintenance of normoglycemia is recommended. When one attempts to treat preexisting hyperglycemia, care should be taken to avoid rapid fluid shifts, electrolyte abnormalities, and hypoglycemia, all of which can be detrimental to the brain.Mayo Clinic Proceedings 09/1996; 71(8):801-12. · 5.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study sought to determine whether tight glycemic control with a modified glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) solution in diabetic coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients would improve perioperative outcomes. One hundred forty-one diabetic patients undergoing CABG were prospectively randomized to tight glycemic control (serum glucose, 125 to 200 mg/dL) with GIK or standard therapy (serum glucose <250 mg/dL) using intermittent subcutaneous insulin beginning before anesthesia and continuing for 12 hours after surgery. GIK patients had lower serum glucose levels (138+/-4 versus 260+/-6 mg/dL; P<0.0001), a lower incidence of atrial fibrillation (16.6% versus 42%; P=0.0017), and a shorter postoperative length of stay (6.5+/-0.1 versus 9.2+/-0.3 days; P=0.003). GIK patients also showed a survival advantage over the initial 2 years after surgery (P=0.04) and decreased episodes of recurrent ischemia (5% versus 19%; P=0.01) and developed fewer recurrent wound infections (1% versus 10%, P=0.03). Tight glycemic control with GIK in diabetic CABG patients improves perioperative outcomes, enhances survival, and decreases the incidence of ischemic events and wound complications.Circulation 04/2004; 109(12):1497-502. · 15.20 Impact Factor