Matching ventilatory support strategies to respiratory pathophysiology.

Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, King's College London, Children Nationwide Regional Neonatal Intensive Care Centre, 4th Floor, Golden Jubilee Wing, King's College Hospital, London SE5 9PJ, UK.
Clinics in Perinatology (Impact Factor: 2.58). 03/2007; 34(1):35-53, v-vi. DOI: 10.1016/j.clp.2006.12.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neonates can suffer from various diseases that impact differently on lung function according to the specific pulmonary pathophysiology. As a consequence, the optimal respiratory support will vary according to disorder. Most randomized trials have only included prematurely born infants who have respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or infants who have severe respiratory failure. Meta-analysis of the results has demonstrated that for the prematurely born infant who has RDS, prophylactic high-frequency oscillatory ventilation only results in a modest reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and patient-triggered ventilation (assist/control or synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation) reduces the duration of ventilation if started in the recovery phase. Whether the newer triggered modes are more efficacious remains to be appropriately tested. In term infants who have severe respiratory failure, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation increases survival, but inhaled nitric oxide only reduces the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Research is required to identify the optimum respiratory strategy for infants who have other respiratory disorders, particularly bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Advances in neonatal intensive care have markedly improved survival rates for infants born at a very early lung development stage (<26 weeks gestation). In these premature infants, even low inspired oxygen concentrations and gentle ventilatory methods may disrupt distal lung growth, a condition described as "new" bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). BPD usually develops into a mild form, with only few infants requiring ventilator support and oxygen supplementation at 36 weeks post-conception. No magic bullets exist for treating infants with established severe BPD. Current management of the disease aims at maintaining an adequate gas exchange while promoting optimal lung growth. Prolonged oxygen therapy and ventilator support through nasal cannulae or a tracheotomy are often required to maintain blood gases. Short-course, low-dose corticosteroids may improve lung function and accelerate weaning from oxygen and mechanical ventilation. Pulmonary hypertension is a major complication in infants with severe BPD. Pulmonary vasodilators, such as sildenafil followed by bosentan, may improve the oxygenation and pulmonary outcome.
    The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 10/2012; 25 Suppl 3:15-20. · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Korean Journal of Pediatrics 01/2009; 52(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neonatal ventilation is an integral component of care delivered in the neonatal unit. The aim of any ventilation strategy is to support the neonate's respiratory system during compromise while limiting any long-term damage to the lungs. Understanding the principles behind neonatal ventilation is essential so that health professionals caring for sick neonates and families have the necessary knowledge to understand best practice. Given the range of existing ventilation modes and parameters available, these require explanation and clarification in the context of current evidence. Many factors can influence clinical decision making on both an individual level and within the wider perspective of neonatal care.
    Neonatal network: NN 32(4):246-61.


Available from