Matching ventilatory support strategies to respiratory pathophysiology.

Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, King's College London, Children Nationwide Regional Neonatal Intensive Care Centre, 4th Floor, Golden Jubilee Wing, King's College Hospital, London SE5 9PJ, UK.
Clinics in Perinatology (Impact Factor: 2.58). 03/2007; 34(1):35-53, v-vi. DOI:10.1016/j.clp.2006.12.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neonates can suffer from various diseases that impact differently on lung function according to the specific pulmonary pathophysiology. As a consequence, the optimal respiratory support will vary according to disorder. Most randomized trials have only included prematurely born infants who have respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or infants who have severe respiratory failure. Meta-analysis of the results has demonstrated that for the prematurely born infant who has RDS, prophylactic high-frequency oscillatory ventilation only results in a modest reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and patient-triggered ventilation (assist/control or synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation) reduces the duration of ventilation if started in the recovery phase. Whether the newer triggered modes are more efficacious remains to be appropriately tested. In term infants who have severe respiratory failure, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation increases survival, but inhaled nitric oxide only reduces the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Research is required to identify the optimum respiratory strategy for infants who have other respiratory disorders, particularly bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

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