Selective and nonselective packaging of cellular RNAs in retrovirus particles.
ABSTRACT Assembly of retrovirus particles normally entails the selective encapsidation of viral genomic RNA. However, in the absence of packageable viral RNA, assembly is still efficient, and the released virus-like particles (termed "Psi-" particles) still contain roughly normal amounts of RNA. We have proposed that cellular mRNAs replace the genome in Psi- particles. We have now analyzed the mRNA content of Psi- and Psi+ murine leukemia virus (MLV) particles using both microarray analysis and real-time reverse transcription-PCR. The majority of mRNA species present in the virus-producing cells were also detected in Psi- particles. Remarkably, nearly all of them were packaged nonselectively; that is, their representation in the particles was simply proportional to their representation in the cells. However, a small number of low-abundance mRNAs were greatly enriched in the particles. In fact, one mRNA species was enriched to the same degree as Psi+ genomic RNA. Similar results were obtained with particles formed from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein, and the same mRNAs were enriched in MLV and HIV-1 particles. The levels of individual cellular mRNAs were approximately 5- to 10-fold higher in Psi- than in Psi+ MLV particles, in agreement with the idea that they are replacing viral RNA in the former. In contrast, signal recognition particle RNA was present at the same level in Psi- and Psi+ particles; a minor fraction of this RNA was weakly associated with genomic RNA in Psi+ MLV particles.
Article: Deficiency of 60 to 70S RNA in murine leukemia virus particles assembled in cells treated with actinomycin D.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Production of particles with the ultrastructural appearance of C-type virions persisted for at least 6 h in actinomycin D-treated cells infected with murine leukemia virus. This phenomenon occurred despite severe inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. Virus particles present in a 6-h harvest sedimented in sucrose gradients with the buoyant density characteristic of RNA tumor viruses (1.16 g/cm(3)) and exhibited high levels of reverse transcriptase activity in response to the exogenous template polyriboadenylic acid.oligo deoxythymidylic acid in the range of untreated controls. However, RNase-sensitive endogenous activity was only (1/5) the level found in controls. This observation correlated with a marked reduction in infectivity. Kinetic studies on the appearance of labeled RNA in banded virions revealed that within the first hour after addition of actinomycin D, particles contained 60 to 70S RNA and two low-molecular-weight RNA species corresponding to 8 and 4S RNA. After approximately 1 h of incubation with actinomycin D, 60 to 70S RNA could not be detected and 4S RNA was the predominant species. These findings suggest that murine leukemia virus particles assembled in the presence of actinomycin D are deficient in 60 to 70S viral RNA.Journal of Virology 08/1974; 14(1):152-61. · 5.40 Impact Factor