Article

The Enigmatic temporal pole: a review of findings on social and emotional processing

Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, 3720 Walnut Street, Room B51, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6196, USA.
Brain (Impact Factor: 10.23). 07/2007; 130(Pt 7):1718-31. DOI: 10.1093/brain/awm052
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The function of the anterior-most portion of the temporal lobes, the temporal pole, is not well understood. Anatomists have long considered it part of an extended limbic system based on its location posterior to the orbital frontal cortex and lateral to the amygdala, along with its tight connectivity to limbic and paralimbic regions. Here we review the literature in both non-human primates and humans to assess the temporal pole's putative role in social and emotional processing. Reviewed findings indicate that it has some role in both social and emotional processes, including face recognition and theory of mind, that goes beyond semantic memory. We propose that the temporal pole binds complex, highly processed perceptual inputs to visceral emotional responses. Because perceptual inputs remain segregated into dorsal (auditory), medial (olfactory) and ventral (visual) streams, the integration of emotion with perception is channel specific.

1 Follower
 · 
131 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: This study aimed at examining the direct and indirect, via cognitive control and emotion recognition, effects of advancing age on adults’ social cognition, and especially, on complex forms of it such as indirect speech, faux pas, and social mental verb understanding. Method: The sample comprised a total of 70 adults, aged from 18 to 83 years. Participants were almost equally distributed in each one of three age-groups (young, middle-aged, and older adults), according to their gender and educational level. Three tasks measuring the ability to interpret indirect speech, the ability to understand faux pas, and social mental verb understanding, respectively, were administered as measures of social cognition. Cognitive control, as inhibitory control, task switching, updating-monitoring, and planning, as well as basic emotion decoding from visual cues, were measured by four and one task respectively. Results: After the confirmation of the factor structure of each one of the dimensions of social cognition, and the examination of the direct effects of age on them, the all-inclusive path model finally confirmed showed that age has a significant negative indirect effect, via cognitive control, on social cognition as ability to interpret indirect speech and faux pas. Conclusion: The decreased performance that cognitively healthy older adults exhibit, as regards specific complex dimensions of social cognition, could be attributed to negative effects of age on cognitive control. However, it is likely that some other complex dimensions of social cognition are not affected by frontal aging.
    Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine 05/2015; May-August 2015(Supplement, 18):15-25. · 0.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ability to attribute mental states to others, or "mentalizing," is posited to involve specific subnetworks within the overall default mode network (DMN), but this question needs clarification. To determine which default mode (DM) subnetworks are engaged by mentalizing processes, we assessed task-related recruitment of DM subnetworks. Spatial independent component analysis (sICA) was applied to fMRI data using a relatively high-order model (75 components). Healthy participants (n = 53, ages 17-60) performed two fMRI tasks: an interactive game involving mentalizing (Domino), a semantic memory task (SORT), and a resting state fMRI scan. sICA of the two tasks split the DMN into 10 subnetworks located in three core regions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC; five subnetworks), posterior cingulate/precuneus (PCC/PrC; three subnetworks), and bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ). Mentalizing events increased recruitment in five of 10 DM subnetworks, located in all three core DMN regions. In addition, three of these five DM subnetworks, one dmPFC subnetwork, one PCC/PrC subnetwork, and the right TPJ subnetwork, showed reduced recruitment by semantic memory task events. The opposing modulation by the two tasks suggests that these three DM subnetworks are specifically engaged in mentalizing. Our findings, therefore, suggest the unique involvement of mentalizing processes in only three of 10 DM subnetworks, and support the importance of the dmPFC, PCC/PrC, and right TPJ in mentalizing as described in prior studies. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/hbm.22827 · 6.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several abnormal brain regions are known to be linked to depression, including amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) etc. The aim of this study is to apply EEG (electroencephalogram) data analysis to investigate, with respect to mild depression, whether there exists dysregulation in these brain regions. EEG sources were assessed from 9 healthy and 9 mildly depressed subjects who were classified according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) criteria. t-Test was used to calculate the eye movement data and standardized low resolution tomography (sLORETA) was used to correlate EEG activity. A comparison of eye movement data between the healthy and mild depressed subjects exhibited that mildly depressed subjects spent more time viewing negative emotional faces. Comparison of the EEG from the two groups indicated higher theta activity in BA6 (Brodmann area) and higher alpha activity in BA38. EEG source location results suggested that temporal pole activity to be dysregulated, and eye-movement data analysis exhibited mild depressed subjects paid much more attention to negative face expressions, which is also in accordance with the results of EEG source location. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Computer methods and programs in biomedicine 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cmpb.2015.04.009 · 1.09 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
55 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014