The architecture of outer dynein arms in situ
ABSTRACT Outer dynein arms, the force generators for axonemal motion, form arrays on microtubule doublets in situ, although they are bouquet-like complexes with separated heads of multiple heavy chains when isolated in vitro. To understand how the three heavy chains are folded in the array, we reconstructed the detailed 3D structure of outer dynein arms of Chlamydomonas flagella in situ by electron cryo-tomography and single-particle averaging. The outer dynein arm binds to the A-microtubule through three interfaces on two adjacent protofilaments, two of which probably represent the docking complex. The three AAA rings of heavy chains, seen as stacked plates, are connected in a striking manner on microtubule doublets. The tail of the alpha-heavy chain, identified by analyzing the oda11 mutant, which lacks alpha-heavy chain, extends from the AAA ring tilted toward the tip of the axoneme and towards the inside of the axoneme at 50 degrees , suggesting a three-dimensional power stroke. The neighboring outer dynein arms are connected through two filamentous structures: one at the exterior of the axoneme and the other through the alpha-tail. Although the beta-tail seems to merge with the alpha-tail at the internal side of the axoneme, the gamma-tail is likely to extend at the exterior of the axoneme and join the AAA ring. This suggests that the fold and function of gamma-heavy chain are different from those of alpha and beta-chains.
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ABSTRACT: Cryo-electron tomography has been a valuable tool in the analysis of 3D structures of cilia at molecular and cellular levels. It opened a way to reconstruct 3D conformations of proteins in cilia at 3-nm resolution, revealed networks of a number of component proteins in cilia, and has even allowed the study of component dynamics. In particular, we have identified the locations and conformations of all the regular inner and outer dyneins, as well as various regulators such as radial spokes. Since the mid 2000s, cryo-electron tomography has provided us with new knowledge, concepts, and questions in the area of cilia research. Now, after nearly 10 years of application of this technique, we are turning a corner and are at the stage to discuss the next steps. We expect further development of this technique for specimen preparation, data acquisition, and analysis. While combining this tool with other methodologies has already made cryo-electron tomography more biologically significant, we need to continue this cooperation using recently developed biotechnology and cell biology approaches. In this review, we will provide an up-to-date overview of the biological insights obtained by cryo-electron tomography and will discuss future possibilities of this technique in the context of cilia research.02/2015; 4(1). DOI:10.1186/s13630-014-0012-7
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ABSTRACT: The motility of eukaryotic cilia and flagella is modulated in response to several extracellular stimuli. Ca(2+) is the most critical intracellular factor for these changes in motility, directly acting on the axonemes and altering flagellar asymmetry. Calaxin is an opisthokont-specific neuronal calcium sensor protein first described in the sperm of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. It binds to a heavy chain of two-headed outer arm dynein in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and regulates 'asymmetric' wave propagation at high concentrations of Ca(2+). A Ca(2+)-binding subunit of outer arm dynein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the light chain 4 (LC4), which is a Ca(2+)-sensor phylogenetically different from calaxin, shows Ca(2+)-dependent binding to a heavy chain of three-headed outer arm dynein. However, LC4 appears to participate in 'symmetric' wave propagation at high concentrations of Ca(2+). LC4-type dynein light chain is present in bikonts, except for some subclasses of the Excavata. Thus, flagellar asymmetry-symmetry conversion in response to Ca(2+) concentration represents a 'mirror image' relationship between Ciona and Chlamydomonas. Phylogenetic analyses indicate the duplication, divergence, and loss of heavy chain and Ca(2+)-sensors of outer arm dynein among excavate species. These features imply a divergence point with respect to Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of outer arm dynein in cilia and flagella during the evolution of eukaryotic supergroups.04/2015; 4(1):6. DOI:10.1186/s13630-015-0015-z
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ABSTRACT: A series of 1,3-diamido phosphocholines was synthesized, and their potential to form stable bilayers was investigated. Large and giant unilamellar vesicles produced from these new lipids form a wide variety of faceted liposomes. Factors such as cooling rates and the careful choice of the liposome preparation method influence the formation of facets. Interdigitation was hypothesized as a main factor for the stabilization of facets and effectively monitored by small-angle X-ray scattering measurements.Langmuir 02/2015; DOI:10.1021/la5041745 · 4.38 Impact Factor