beta-Blocker use and diabetes symptom score: results from the GEMINI study
ABSTRACT The Glycemic Effect in Diabetes Mellitus: Carvedilol-Metoprolol Comparison in Hypertensives (GEMINI) trial compared the metabolic effects of two beta-blockers in people with type 2 diabetes and hypertension treated with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade and found differences in metabolic outcomes. In this paper, we report the results of a prespecified secondary analysis of GEMINI that sought to determine the effect of these two beta-blockers on commonly reported symptoms.
The Diabetes Symptom Checklist (DSC), a self-report questionnaire measuring the occurrence and perceived burden of diabetes-related symptoms, was completed by GEMINI participants at baseline and at the end of the study (maintenance month 5). The DSC assessed symptoms in eight domains: psychology (fatigue), psychology (cognitive), neuropathy (pain), neuropathy (sensory), cardiology, ophthalmology, hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia.
Comparison of the mean change in self-reported diabetes-related symptoms indicated a significant treatment difference favouring carvedilol over metoprolol tartrate in overall symptom score (-0.08; 95% CI -0.15, -0.01; p = 0.02) and in the domains for hypoglycaemia symptoms (-0.12; 95% CI -0.23, -0.02; p = 0.02) and hyperglycaemia symptoms (-0.16; 95% CI -0.27, -0.05; p = 0.005). Carvedilol resulted in fewer perceived diabetes-related symptoms in patients with diabetes and hypertension.
Carvedilol resulted in a lower perceived burden of diabetes-related symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. The addition of a well-tolerated beta-blocker to RAS blockade may improve hypertension treatment and quality of life in patients with diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: With the increasing prevalence of hypertension, there has been a growing interest in understanding the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with hypertension. Although hypertension is often perceived as asymptomatic, it is associated with impaired HRQOL because of complications or comorbidities, awareness of the diagnosis, and adverse effects from antihypertensive medications. This article focuses on the literature published since 2000, on HRQOL in elderly hypertensive individuals as well as hypertensives with co-existent diseases, including chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus. Most of the studies found that hypertensive individuals with co-existent co-morbidities tend to have lower HRQOL than those with hypertension alone, and identified the number of co-morbid illnesses as an independent determinant of HRQOL. The most pronounced effect was noted in the physical function domains of HRQOL. Studies have also examined the effects on HRQOL of specific classes of antihypertensive drugs without specific demonstration of superiority of one drug class over another in terms of HRQOL measures. Although there is evidence in favor of angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibition for improving renal and cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients, its role in ameliorating HRQOL outcomes remains to be established.Advances in chronic kidney disease 07/2010; 17(4):e17-26. DOI:10.1053/j.ackd.2010.04.002 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: β-Blockers are a standard of care in many clinical settings such as acute myocardial infarction, heart failure and patients at risk for a coronary event. However, not all β-blockers are the same and they vary in properties such as lipophilicity, metabolic profile, receptor inhibition, hemodynamics, tolerability and antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects. It has been unclear whether these differences affect outcomes or if one β-blocker should be preferred over another. This review will summarize the properties of metoprolol, atenolol and carvedilol, as well as comparative experimental and clinical trials between these agents. We will provide compelling evidence of why carvedilol should be a first-line β-blocker and why it offers many advantages over the β1-selective β-blockers.Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy 01/2012; 10(1):13-25. DOI:10.1586/erc.11.166
Article: Medications Used to Treat Glaucoma[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The goals of glaucoma therapy for the patient and the physician are ultimately the same ones, but they are often approached from very different perspectives. Most patients with glaucoma visit their ophthalmologist on a regular basis because they understand that they have a potentially blinding disease that requires compliance with examinations and therapy. The patient’s goal is to preserve the vision manifested in his or her visual field. While the treating ophthalmologist’s overriding goal also is to preserve visual function for the patient, the doctor’s immediate goal is to preserve those physiological structures whose anatomy underlies the basis for the ability to see. In treating the patient, the ophthalmologist needs to take into account new understandings of risk factors as well as new concepts, such as those that suggest that aging is a major risk factor for glaucoma.