Targeting hyperglycaemia with either metformin or repaglinide in non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes: results from a randomized crossover trial
ABSTRACT Metformin is the 'drug-of-first-choice' in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to its antihyperglycaemic and cardiovascular protective potentials. In non-obese patients with T2DM, insulin secretagogues are empirically used as first choice. In this investigator-initiated trial, we evaluated the effect of metformin vs. an insulin secretagogue, repaglinide on glycaemic regulation and markers of inflammation and insulin sensitivity in non-obese patients with T2DM.
A single-centre, double-masked, double-dummy, crossover study during 2 x 4 months involved 96 non-obese (body mass index < or = 27 kg/m(2)) insulin-naïve patients with T2DM. At enrolment, previous oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA) were stopped and patients entered a 1-month run-in on diet-only treatment. Hereafter, patients were randomized to either repaglinide 2 mg thrice daily followed by metformin 1 g twice daily or vice versa each during 4 months with 1-month washout between interventions.
End-of-treatment levels of haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), fasting plasma glucose, mean of seven-point home-monitored plasma glucose and fasting levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and adiponectin were not significantly different between treatments. However, body weight, waist circumference, fasting serum levels of insulin and C-peptide were lower and less number of patients experienced hypoglycaemia during treatment with metformin vs. repaglinide. Both drugs were well tolerated.
In non-obese patients with T2DM, overall glycaemic regulation was equivalent with less hypoglycaemia during metformin vs. repaglinide treatment for 2 x 4 months. Metformin was more effective targeting non-glycaemic cardiovascular risk markers related to total and abdominal body fat stores as well as fasting insulinaemia. These findings may suggest the use of metformin as the preferred OHA also in non-obese patients with T2DM.
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Article: De vakgroep/afdeling Interne Geneeskunde herbergt drie medische specialismen: Interne Geneeskunde, Maag-darm-leverziekten en Reumatologie. Binnen het specialisme Interne Geneeskunde zijn 11 specialisaties aanwezig, namelijk algemeen interne geneeskunde; acute interne geneeskunde; consultatieve interne geneeskunde; endocrinologie; hematologie; infectieziekten; klinische immunologie; nefrologie; medische oncologie; ouderengeneeskunde; en vasculaire geneeskunde
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ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia due to a combination of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. The hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk for micro- and macrovascular complications, and lowering fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia may be protective against these complications. Repaglinide is an insulin secretagogue that lowers blood glucose levels in patients with T2DM. We review the effects of repaglinide in patients with T2DM, its impact on glycemia and its non-glycemic effects, and its effects when used in special situations or patient populations. Results from randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and safety reports involving humans and published in the English-language through 1 May 2007 identified by a search in PubMed/MEDLINE were evaluated. Present knowledge indicates that repaglinide reduces fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia and the level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with T2DM. It is at least as effective in reducing HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose as sulphonylureas, metformin, or the glitazones and in combination therapy with other drugs, repaglinide is as effective as any other combination. Some studies show a better effect of repaglinide on postprandial glycemia than the comparators. Its propensity to induce hypoglycemia is similar to or a little less than that of sulphonylureas. Repaglinide is associated with less weight gain than sulphonylureas and the glitazones. Repaglinide has primarily a role in the treatment of T2DM when metformin cannot be used due to adverse effects, when metformin fails to adequately control blood glucose levels, when there is a need for flexible dosing (i.e. the elderly or during Ramadan fasting), or when there is a specific wish to lower postprandial glucose. Repaglinide may also have an advantage when an oral agent is needed in diabetic patients with renal impairment. Because of its short duration of action, repaglinide should be taken before each meal, usually at least three times a day. Although no study has investigated whether repaglinide lowers total mortality or cardiovascular endpoints, several studies indicate beneficial effects on cardiovascular surrogate endpoints, such as carotid intima-media thickening, markers of inflammation, platelet activation, lipid parameters, endothelial function, adiponectin, and oxidative stress. In conclusion, repaglinide is a compound that can be used in both mono- and combination therapy for the treatment of both fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with T2DM. It can be used in patients at different stages of the disease, from uncomplicated to severe renal impairment. Although the drug has been tested in a large number of clinical trials and observational studies, its world-wide use is far less than, for example, sulphonylureas. Repaglinide may offer an additional potential for lowering blood glucose levels in T2DM that until now has not been fully realized by many clinicians.American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 02/2007; 7(5):319-35. DOI:10.2165/00129784-200707050-00002 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A major reason for the increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) across the world is the so-called obesity epidemic, which occurs both in developed and developing countries. However, a large proportion of patients with T2DM in European and, in particular, Asian countries are non-obese. The non-obese T2DM phenotype is characterized by disproportionally reduced insulin secretion and less insulin resistance, as compared with obese patients with T2DM. Importantly, non-obese patients with T2DM have a similar increased risk of cardiovascular disease as obese T2DM patients. The risk of T2DM in non-obese patients is influenced by genetics as well as factors operating in utero indicated by low birth weight. Furthermore, this phenotype is slightly more prevalent among patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, characterized by positive anti-GAD antibodies. The recently identified TCF7L2 gene polymorphism resulting in low insulin secretion influences the risk of T2DM in both obese and non-obese subjects, but is relatively more prevalent among non-obese patients with T2DM. Furthermore, the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR gamma gene influencing insulin action increases the risk of T2DM in non-obese subjects. Despite a "normal" body mass index, non-obese patients with T2DM are generally characterized by a higher degree of both abdominal and total fat masses (adiposity). Prevention of T2DM with lifestyle intervention is at least as effective in non-obese as in obese prediabetic subjects, and recent data suggest that metformin treatment targeting insulin resistance and non-glycemic cardiovascular disease risk factors is as beneficial in non-obese as in obese patients with T2DM. Nevertheless, non-obese patients with T2DM may progress to insulin treatment more rapidly as compared with obese patients with T2DM.Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 11/2007; 32(5):912-20. DOI:10.1139/H07-100 · 2.23 Impact Factor