Maternal food consumption during pregnancy and asthma, respiratory and atopic symptoms in 5-year-old children

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
Thorax (Impact Factor: 8.29). 09/2007; 62(9):773-9. DOI: 10.1136/thx.2006.074187
Source: PubMed


Associations between maternal vitamin E, vitamin D and zinc intakes during pregnancy and asthma, wheeze and eczema in 5-year-old children have previously been reported. A study was undertaken to investigate whether maternal intake of specific foods during pregnancy is associated with asthma and allergic outcomes in the same children.
A longitudinal birth cohort study was conducted in 1,924 children born to women recruited during pregnancy. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Cohort children were followed up at 5 years by symptom questionnaire and FFQ. Food groups of interest were fruit, vegetables, fruit juice, whole grain products, fish, dairy products and fat spreads. Trends across outcome groups defined by level of food intake are presented.
1,253 children participated at 5 years and maternal FFQ data were available for 1,212. No consistent associations were found between childhood outcomes and maternal intake of the analysed foods except for apples and fish. Maternal apple intake was beneficially associated with ever wheeze (OR highest vs lowest tertile 0.63, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.95), ever asthma (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.92) and doctor-confirmed asthma (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.82) in the children. Maternal fish consumption was beneficially associated with doctor-confirmed eczema (OR >or=1/week vs never 0.57, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.92).
There was no evidence for associations between maternal intake of most foods during pregnancy and asthma, respiratory and allergic outcomes in 5-year-old children, except for apples and fish. Consumption of apples and fish during pregnancy may have a protective effect against the development of childhood asthma and allergic disease.

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    • "Some studies have examined the effect of maternal fish intake during pregnancy on either eczema [22,23,29-31] or asthma/wheezing [22-24,29,32] in children. Four of the five studies that focused on eczema showed a decreased risk with a high consumption of fish (>1/week) during pregnancy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental exposures, including dietary contaminants, may influence the developing immune system. This study assesses the association between maternal pre-parturition consumption of seafood and wheeze, eczema, and food allergy in preschool children. Fish and shellfish were studied separately as they differ according to their levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (which have anti-allergic properties) and their levels of contaminants. The PELAGIE cohort included 3421 women recruited at the beginning of pregnancy. Maternal fish and shellfish intake was measured at inclusion by a food frequency questionnaire. Wheeze, eczema, and food allergy were evaluated by a questionnaire completed by the mother when the child was 2 years old (n = 1500). Examination of the associations between seafood intake and outcomes took major confounders into account. Complementary sensitivity analyses with multiple imputation enabled us to handle missing data, due mostly to attrition. Moderate maternal pre-parturition fish intake (1 to 4 times a month) was, at borderline significance, associated with a lower risk of wheeze (adjusted OR = 0.69 (0.45-1.05)) before age 2, compared with low intake (< once/month). This result was not, however, consistent: after multiple imputation, the adjusted OR was 0.86 (0.63-1.17). Shellfish intake at least once a month was associated with a higher risk of food allergy before age 2 (adjusted OR = 1.62 (1.11-2.37)) compared to low or no intake (< once/month). Multiple imputation confirmed this association (adjusted OR = 1.52 (1.05-2.21)). This study suggests that maternal pre-parturition shellfish consumption may increase the risk of food allergy. Further large-scale epidemiologic studies are needed to corroborate these results, identify the contaminants or components of shellfish responsible for the effects observed, determine the persistence of the associations seen at age 2, and investigate potential associations with health effects observable at later ages, such as allergic asthma.
    Environmental Health 12/2013; 12(1):102. DOI:10.1186/1476-069X-12-102 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    • "Specifically, a higher maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy might decrease the risk of recurrent wheezing in early childhood.59,60 However, another study did not find any evidence regarding the associations between maternal intake of most foods during pregnancy and asthma, respiratory, and allergic outcomes in 5 year old children – except for apples and fish – which might reduce the risk of children developing asthma or atopic disease.61 In a population-based birth cohort study of 1,669 children in Finland, it was observed that maternal vitamin D intake from foods during pregnancy might be negatively associated with risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis in childhood.62 "
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    ABSTRACT: Humans have the ability to synthesize vitamin D during the action of ultraviolet (UV) radiation upon the skin. Apart from the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism, another critical role for vitamin D in immunity and respiratory health has been revealed, since vitamin D receptors have also been found in other body cells. The term "vitamin D insufficiency" has been used to describe low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D that may be associated with a wide range of pulmonary diseases, including viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. This review focuses on the controversial relationship between vitamin D and asthma. Also, it has been found that different gene polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor have variable associations with asthma. Other studies investigated the vitamin D receptor signaling pathway in vitro or in experimental animal models and showed either a beneficial or a negative effect of vitamin D in asthma. Furthermore, a range of epidemiological studies has also suggested that vitamin D insufficiency is associated with low lung function. In the future, clinical trials in different asthmatic groups, such as infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities are needed to establish the role of vitamin D supplementation to prevent and/or treat asthma.
    Drug Design, Development and Therapy 09/2013; 7:1003-1013. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S50599 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    • "It has been shown that children born from mothers with low fish or vitamin D intake during pregnancy have an increased prevalence of AD.43,44 In addition, cross-sectional studies demonstrate a higher prevalence of AD in children born during autumn and winter compared with those born in spring and summer.45 "
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with atopic dermatitis have genetically determined risk factors that affect the barrier function of the skin and immune responses that interact with environmental factors. Clinically, this results in an intensely pruriginous and inflamed skin that allows the penetration of irritants and allergens and predisposes patients to colonization and infection by microorganisms. Among the various etiological factors responsible for the increased prevalence of atopic diseases over the past few decades, the role of vitamin D has been emphasized. As the pathogenesis of AD involves a complex interplay of epidermal barrier dysfunction and dysregulated immune response, and vitamin D is involved in both processes, it is reasonable to expect that vitamin D's status could be associated with atopic dermatitis' risk or severity. Such association is suggested by epidemiological and experimental data. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for and against this controversial relationship, emphasizing the possible etiopathogenic mechanisms involved.
    Anais brasileiros de dermatologia 03/2013; 88(6):945-53. DOI:10.1590/abd1806-4841.20132660 · 0.72 Impact Factor
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