Stability studies of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronides in urine.
ABSTRACT The stability of testosterone glucuronide (TG), epitestosterone glucuronide (EG) and the T/E ratio in urine has been studied. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Urine samples were submitted to a solid-liquid cleanup followed by extraction of unconjugated testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) with tert-butyl methyl ether (free fraction). The remaining aqueous phase was hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase and extracted at alkaline pH with n-pentane. Analytes were analyzed by GC/MS as their enol-trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. The urine for stability testing was obtained from an excretion study after the administration of T to healthy volunteers. The homogeneity of the sample was verified before starting the stability study. The stability of TG and EG was evaluated at different storage conditions. For long-term stability testing, analyte concentration in urine stored at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C was determined at different time intervals for 22 months. For short-term stability testing, analyte concentration was evaluated in urine stored at 37 degrees C for 3 and 7 days. The effect of repeated freezing (at -20 degrees C) and thawing (at room temperature) was studied for up to three cycles. Data obtained in this work demonstrated the stability of TG, EG and the T/E ratio in sterilized urine samples stored at 4 and -20 degrees C for 22 months and after going through repeated freeze/thaw cycles. Decreases in concentration were observed after 7 days of storage at 37 degrees C due to the partial cleavage of the glucuronide conjugates; however, the T/E ratio was not affected. These results show the feasibility of preparing reference materials containing TG and EG to be used for quality control purposes.
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ABSTRACT: The screening of testosterone misuse in the doping control field is normally performed by the measurement of the ratio between the concentrations of testosterone and epitestosterone excreted as glucuronides (T/E). Despite the satisfactory results obtained with this approach, the measurement of T/E presents some limitations like the long-term detection of oral testosterone administration. Recently, several testosterone metabolites released after basic treatment of the urine have been reported (androsta-1,4-dien-3,17-dione, androsta-4,6-dien-3,17-dione, 17β-hydroxy-androsta-4,6-dien-3-one and 15-androsten-3,17-dione). In the present work, the usefulness of these metabolites for the detection of oral testosterone misuse has been evaluated and compared with the conventional T/E measurement. For this purpose, 173 urine samples collected from healthy volunteers were analysed in order to obtain reference concentrations for the four metabolites released after alkaline treatment. On the other hand, urine samples collected from five volunteers before and after testosterone undecanoate administration were also analysed. Concentrations of androsta-4,6-dien-3,17-dione and 17β-hydroxy-androsta-4,6-dien-3-one showed a similar behaviour as the T/E, allowing the detection of the misuse for several hours after administration. More promising results were obtained by quantifying androsta-1,4-dien-3,17-dione and 15-androsten-3,17-dione. The time in which the concentrations of these analytes could be differentiated from the basal level was between 3 and 6 times longer than the obtained with T/E, as a result, an improvement in the detection of testosterone abuse can be achieved. Moreover, several ratios between these compounds were evaluated. Some of them improved the detection of testosterone misuse when comparing with T/E. The best results were obtained with those ratios involving androsta-1,4-dien-3,17-dione.Steroids 07/2011; 76(12):1367-76. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Due to their growth-promoting effects, the use of synthetic glucocorticoids is strictly regulated in the European Union (Council Directive 2003/74/EC). In the frame of the national control plans, which should ensure the absence of residues in food products of animal origin, in recent years, a higher frequency of prednisolone positive bovine urines has been observed. This has raised questions with respect to the stability of natural corticoids in the respective urine samples and their potential to be transformed into synthetic analogs. In this study, a ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) methodology was developed to examine the stability of glucocorticoids in bovine urine under various storage conditions (up to 20 weeks) and to define suitable conditions for sample handling and storage, using an Orbitrap Exactive™. To this end, an extraction procedure was optimized using a Plackett-Burman experimental design to determine the key conditions for optimal extraction of glucocorticoids from urine. Next, the analytical method was successfully validated according to the guidelines of CD 2002/657/EC. Decision limits and detection capabilities for prednisolone, prednisone and methylprednisolone ranged, respectively, from 0.1 to 0.5μgL(-1) and from 0.3 to 0.8μgL(-1). For the natural glucocorticoids limits of detection and limits of quantification for dihydrocortisone, cortisol and cortisone ranged, respectively, from 0.1 to 0.2μgL(-1) and from 0.3 to 0.8μgL(-1). The stability study demonstrated that filter-sterilization of urine, storage at -80°C, and acidic conditions (pH 3) were optimal for preservation of glucocorticoids in urine and able to significantly limit degradation up to 20 weeks.Journal of Chromatography A 06/2013; · 4.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) that we recently described to be class-selective for glucuronides have been successfully exploited for the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) of testosterone glucuronide (TG) from its parent drug (T) in urine. Both sorbents targeted the glucuronate fragment but feature different functional groups for binding the carboxylate anion, MIP1, a neutral 1,3-diarylurea group, and MIP2, a cationic imidazolium functionality. MISPE-HPLC-UV methods developed using both sorbents allowed the extraction of TG from its parent compound in urine samples spiked at 150, 300 or 600 ng mL(-1) for TG and at 50 ng mL(-1) for T. By comparing the performance of the two sorbents it came out that MIP1 is a more suitable SPE packing than MIP2, since it isolated the glucuronide with a higher precision (RSD 2-5%, n = 3) and with an enhanced enrichment factor (EF = 4.2). On the basis of these results, the imprinted receptor MIP1 can be applied for the direct extraction of TG in doping and clinical analysis and to selectively capture any other relevant glucuronated metabolite avoiding tedious deconjugation steps prior to quantification.The Analyst 01/2012; 137(1):249-54. · 4.23 Impact Factor