Neurotrophin receptor immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.
ABSTRACT Recent evidence supports a critical role of neurotrophins in the regulation of both neuronal survival and synaptic transmission during epileptogenesis. We have examined the immunohistochemical expression of high- (tyrosine kinase receptors, trk) and low-affinity (p75) neurotrophin receptors (NTRs) in the hippocampal specimens from 18 patients with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy [TLE; 14 patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and four with focal lesions (tumours) not involving the hippocampus proper]. Nonepileptic autopsy brains (n = 6) and surgical specimens from tumour patients without epilepsy (n = 3) were used as controls. Immunoreactivity (IR) for the trk receptors (trkA, trkB, trkC) was detected in normal human brain within the pyramidal neurones of hippocampal cornus ammoni (CA) regions and in the dentate gyrus. There were no detectable differences in the neuronal trk IR patterns in the hippocampus between control and TLE cases with HS, except for a decrease in neuronal density in regions where cell death had occurred (CA1, CA3 and CA4). In contrast, a consistent increase in trkA IR was observed in reactive astrocytes in CA1 and dentate gyrus. The low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) was expressed in low levels in postnatal normal hippocampus. In contrast, neuronal p75(NTR) IR was detected in 10/14 cases of HS in spared neurones within the CA and hilar regions of the hippocampus. Double labelling revealed that p75(NTR)-positive neurones also contain trk receptor IR. In six cases with prominent glial activation strong p75(NTR) IR was observed in microglial cells within the sclerotic hippocampus. The present results indicate that changes in NTR expression are still detectable in the hippocampus of patients with chronic TLE and involve both glial and neuronal cells. Reactive astrocytes were immunoreactive for trkA, whereas activated microglia cells were reactive for p75(NTR), suggesting different functions for specific NTRs in the development of reactive gliosis. Moreover, the increased expression of p75(NTR) in hippocampal neurones of TLE patients may critically influence the neuronal survival during the epileptogenic process.
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ABSTRACT: TDAG51 (T cell death-associated gene 51) is an apoptosis-associated protein. Our aim was to investigate TDAG51 expression in the anterior temporal neocortex of patients with intractable epilepsy (IE), and then to discuss the possible role of TDAG51 in IE. Tissue samples from the anterior temporal neocortex of 33 patients who had surgery for IE were used to detect TDAG51 expression by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. We compared these tissues with nine histologically normal anterior temporal lobes from intracranial hypertension patients who had decompression procedures. TDAG51 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of neurons and glial cells. TDAG51 in IE was significantly higher than that in the controls. These findings were consistently observed using Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry techniques. TDAG51 in patients with IE was significantly higher when compared with levels in the controls. This finding suggests TDAG51 is consistent with a possible role of this gene in the evolution of the pathology in IE.Neuroscience Letters 10/2007; 425(1):53-8. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2007.08.016 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A secure design of a drive system in which an AC motor is fed through a long cable must consider the possible occurrence of unacceptable overvoltages and overcurrents on the components of the system. Precise models must be used to investigate the system frequency response in order to identify frequency critical situations. The appropriate driving strategy is eventually obtainedIEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 01/2000; DOI:10.1109/60.815087 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In our previous studies, we demonstrated that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections with the neurotransmitter/neuromodulatory peptide Cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) stimulate the synthesis of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) resulting in the structural and functional recovery of neuronal damage. This neurotrophin-mediated neuroprotective action of CCK-8 has opened a new perspective for a better understanding of the CCK neurobiological and pharmacological properties. To explore the possible beneficial effects of the CCK-induced increase of neurotrophin availability in brain, we compared the effects of i.p. CCK-8 in healthy rats and in a chemical kindling model using a subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). Behavioural changes were monitored during treatment and classified according to a six-point scale. After 3 weeks of treatment (12 trials), the PTZ group of rats manifested generalized clonic-tonic seizures (Class 5 behaviour). For this reason, this time point was chosen to compare the effects of CCK-8 treatment on the expression of NGF, the brain derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) and their receptors in the septum and hippocampus. We found that repeated i.p. injections with CCK-8 in adult rats result in: (1) an increase of NGF and BDNF protein and mRNA levels in the septum and hippocampus; (2) a down-regulation of TrkA and p75NTR and an up-regulation of TrkB; (3) reduced susceptibility to develop chemical kindling; (4) recovery of the PTZ-induced changes in the expression of neurotrophin receptors in the septal and hippocampal tissues. This data clearly indicates that CCK-induced variation of neurotrophin synthesis in brain is able to influence the susceptibility to develop seizures in adult rats most probably by counteracting the progressive neuronal dysfunction and/or damage.Neurochemistry International 02/2007; 50(1):130-8. DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2006.07.008 · 2.65 Impact Factor