Neurotrophin receptor immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.
ABSTRACT Recent evidence supports a critical role of neurotrophins in the regulation of both neuronal survival and synaptic transmission during epileptogenesis. We have examined the immunohistochemical expression of high- (tyrosine kinase receptors, trk) and low-affinity (p75) neurotrophin receptors (NTRs) in the hippocampal specimens from 18 patients with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy [TLE; 14 patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and four with focal lesions (tumours) not involving the hippocampus proper]. Nonepileptic autopsy brains (n = 6) and surgical specimens from tumour patients without epilepsy (n = 3) were used as controls. Immunoreactivity (IR) for the trk receptors (trkA, trkB, trkC) was detected in normal human brain within the pyramidal neurones of hippocampal cornus ammoni (CA) regions and in the dentate gyrus. There were no detectable differences in the neuronal trk IR patterns in the hippocampus between control and TLE cases with HS, except for a decrease in neuronal density in regions where cell death had occurred (CA1, CA3 and CA4). In contrast, a consistent increase in trkA IR was observed in reactive astrocytes in CA1 and dentate gyrus. The low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) was expressed in low levels in postnatal normal hippocampus. In contrast, neuronal p75(NTR) IR was detected in 10/14 cases of HS in spared neurones within the CA and hilar regions of the hippocampus. Double labelling revealed that p75(NTR)-positive neurones also contain trk receptor IR. In six cases with prominent glial activation strong p75(NTR) IR was observed in microglial cells within the sclerotic hippocampus. The present results indicate that changes in NTR expression are still detectable in the hippocampus of patients with chronic TLE and involve both glial and neuronal cells. Reactive astrocytes were immunoreactive for trkA, whereas activated microglia cells were reactive for p75(NTR), suggesting different functions for specific NTRs in the development of reactive gliosis. Moreover, the increased expression of p75(NTR) in hippocampal neurones of TLE patients may critically influence the neuronal survival during the epileptogenic process.
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ABSTRACT: Several lines of evidence implicate BDNF in the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness. BDNF polymorphisms have also been associated with the risk of schizophrenia and mood disorders. We therefore investigated whether levels of (pro)BDNF and receptor proteins, TrkB and p75, are altered in hippocampus in schizophrenia and mood disorder and whether polymorphisms in each gene influenced protein expression. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded hippocampal sections from subjects with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BPD) and non-psychiatric controls were obtained from the Stanley Foundation Neuropathology Consortium. (pro)BDNF, TrkB(T1) and p75 protein densities were quantified by immunoautoradiography and DNA extracted from each subject was used to determine the effect of genotype on protein expression. In MDD, reductions in (pro)BDNF were seen in all layers of the right but not the left hippocampus with no changes in the dentate gyrus. The pattern was similar but less marked for BPD. In addition, BPD but not MDD patients, had bilateral reductions in p75 in hippocampal layers but not in dentate gyrus. No changes in TrkB(T1) density were seen in any diagnosis. These findings suggest MDD and BPD may share impairment in (pro)BDNF expression. However, BPD may involve impairments of both (pro)BDNF and p75 receptor, whereas MDD may involve impaired (pro)BDNF alone. Moreover, the lateralisation of changes may indicate a role of asymmetry in vulnerability to MDD. Hippocampal (pro)BDNF and receptor levels were also affected by genotype, suggesting that allelic variations are important in the hippocampal abnormalities seen in these psychiatric disorders.Journal of Psychiatric Research 05/2009; 43(14):1175-84. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate μ-calpain expression profiles in the anterior temporal neocortex in patients with intractable epilepsy, and to determine whether its pattern of expression is related to pathological changes seen in these patients. The study subjects consisted of 30 patients with intractable epilepsy and a control group of 10 patients with brain trauma who underwent resection of the anterior temporal lobe. μ-Calpain expression in surgically resected anterior temporal cortices of patients with intractable epilepsy were analyzed using the RT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. GFAP expression was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The related pro-inflammatory cytokines were quantified by elisa. Clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated by HE staining. Analysis by Western blot and RT-PCR revealed that inactive μ-calpain expression and the calpain-cleaved spectrin fragment in surgically resected anterior temporal cortices of patients with intractable epilepsy were significantly increased compared to the tissues from corresponding regions of the control group. Immunohistological staining demonstrated that μ-calpain was overexpressed in the cell cytoplasm of neurons and glial cells in patients with intractable epilepsy and GFAP was overexpressed in the cell cytoplasm of glial cells in patients with intractable epilepsy. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β1 were significantly increased in patients with intractable epilepsy. HE staining indicated μ-calpain overexpression is an independent prognostic factor for pathological changes such as neuronal loss, neuronal degeneration, gliosis and astrocytosis. These data suggest that overexpression of μ-calpain is relationship with intractable epilepsy as well as the clinicopathological characteristics in these patients.Seizure 02/2011; 20(5):395-401. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities are frequently associated, but their common biological substrate is unknown. We have previously reported altered structural elements and neurotrophins (NTs) expression in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients with psychiatric comorbidities. NTs receptors can regulate neurotransmission and promote neuroplasticity, being important candidates in the regulation and manifestation of psychopatological states and seizure-related events. MTLE hippocampi of subjects without psychiatric history, MTLE¿+¿major depression, MTLE¿+¿interictal psychosis derived from epilepsy surgery, and control necropsies were investigated for p75NTR, TrkB, TrkA, and TrkC immunohistochemistry. Increased expression of p75NTR, decreased TrkA, unaltered TrkC, and complex alterations involving TrkB expression were seen in MTLE groups. Increased TrkB expression in patients without complete seizure remission and in those with secondarily generalized seizures was seen. Decreased p75NTR expression associated with interictal psychosis, and increased TrkB in those with psychosis or major depression was also reported, although their p75NTR/TrkB ratios were lower than in MTLE without psychiatric comorbidities. Our results provide evidence of alterations in expression of NTs receptors in the epileptogenic hippocampus that are differentially modulated in presence of psychiatric comorbidities. As already explored in animal models, even in chronic human MTLE increased TrkB expression, among other NT receptors alterations, may play a major role in seizure type, frequency and surgery outcome.Acta neuropathologica communications. 07/2014; 2(1):81.