CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus in a population-based study of whites and African-Americans in the southeastern United States.
ABSTRACT Cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) plays an important role in regulating T cell activation, and may help to limit T cell response under conditions of inflammation. Genetic variability in CTLA-4 has been implicated in the development of several autoimmune diseases. Some studies have described associations between CTLA-4 polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but findings have been inconsistent. We examined polymorphisms in the CTLA-4 gene promoter region (-1722T/C, -1661 A/G, -318C/T) and exon I (+49G/A) with respect to SLE in a population-based case-control study in the southeastern US. Genotypes from 230 recently diagnosed cases and 276 controls were examined separately for African-Americans and whites. We observed no overall associations between SLE and the four CTLA-4 polymorphisms examined. Subgroup analyses revealed effect modification by age for the presence of the -1661G allele, yielding a significant positive association with SLE in younger (<35 years) African-Americans (OR = 3.3). CTLA-4 genotypes also interacted with HLA-DR2 and GM allotype to contribute to risk of SLE. These findings suggest allelic variation in this region of CTLA4 is not a major independent risk factor for SLE, but may contribute to risk of disease in younger African-Americans or in the presence of certain immunogenetic markers.
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ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is hypothesized to play a role in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is important in regulating T cell-mediated immunity, encompassing the first line of response to viral infections, and genetic variation in CTLA-4 has been associated with SLE. This study examined the seroprevalence of EBV in a population-based study of SLE patients from the southeastern United States, and potential interactions with CTLA-4 polymorphisms were assessed. Cases comprised 230 subjects recently diagnosed as having SLE (144 African American and 86 white) from university and community-based clinics, and controls comprised 276 age-, sex-, and state-matched subjects (72 African American and 204 white) recruited from driver's license registries. Antibodies to EBV capsid antigen were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with results expressed as positive or negative using the international standardized ratio (ISR) (a ratio of the sample absorbance to a known standard). CTLA-4 genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction-based methods. In African Americans, EBV-IgA seroprevalence was strongly associated with SLE (odds ratio [OR] 5.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 3.0-10.6). In whites, the modest association of SLE with EBV-IgA (OR 1.6) was modified by age, in that the strongest association was observed in those older than age 50 years (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6-10.4). The seroprevalence of EBV-IgM and that of EBV-IgG were not associated with SLE. Higher EBV-IgG absorbance ratios were observed in SLE patients, with a significant dose response across units of the ISR in African Americans (P < 0.0001). Allelic variation in the CTLA-4 gene promoter (-1661A/G) significantly modified the association between SLE and EBV-IgA (P = 0.03), with a stronger association among those with the -1661AA genotype. These findings suggest that repeated or reactivated EBV infection, which results in increased EBV-IgA seroprevalence and higher IgG antibody titers, may be associated with SLE, and that the CTLA-4 genotype influences immune responsiveness to EBV in SLE patients. The observed patterns of effect modification by race, age, and CTLA-4 genotype should be examined in other studies and may help frame new hypotheses regarding the role of EBV in SLE etiology.Arthritis & Rheumatology 04/2005; 52(4):1148-59. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A vigorous T-cell response is essential for the resolution of HCV infection. It is modified by co-stimulatory molecules that attenuate T-lymphocyte responses by binding to CTLA4. We investigated whether CTLA4 single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with the resolution of infection or with the course of disease. We enrolled 127 individuals with self-limited and 947 patients with chronic HCV infection, of whom 560 were treated with interferon-alpha-based therapies, and 200 healthy controls. We analyzed CTLA4 polymorphisms -318C>T and +49A>G by melting curve analysis and reconstructed haplotypes. CTLA4 haplotypes were distributed differently between men but not women with self-limited and chronic infection (p=0.043) but were not predictive of the stage of fibrosis in chronic carriers. Haplotypes were distributed differently between male but not female end-of-treatment responders and non-responders (p=0.025). The influence of CTLA4 haplotypes was more pronounced in "hard-to-treat" situations, i.e., treatment with interferon-alpha monotherapy or infection with HCV genotypes 1/4. Logistic regression analysis confirmed gender-specific risk factors for a virological non-response. CTLA4 polymorphisms are associated with the resolution of HCV infection. This study underlines the role of an efficient T-cell response in the clearance of HCV and sheds light on a gender-dependent difference of immune regulation.Journal of Hepatology 03/2007; 46(3):372-80. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototype autoimmune disease with complex etiology. Loss of immune tolerance and synthesis of autoantibodies against nuclear antigens contributes to the disease. Genetic aberrations disrupting the functions of immune regulatory receptors may facilitate the development of autoimmune diseases. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) is an inhibitory receptor for T cells and this study was carried out to analyze the influence of CTLA4 +49A/G (rs231775) polymorphism on susceptibility to SLE in ethnic Tamils. Three hundred SLE patients and 460 age and sex similar, ethnicity-matched controls were screened for the +49 A/G polymorphism by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The wild allele (A) frequency in controls and cases was 63% and 47%, respectively. The presence of heterozygous (AG) and homozygous mutant (GG) genotype was associated with a significant risk to develop SLE (P = 0.0001, OR-2.29, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6–3.3) and (P = 0.0001, OR-4.3, 95% CI, 2.8–6.99). The frequency of mutant allele (G) in patients was also significantly associated with SLE (P = 0.0001, OR-1.9, 95% CI, 1.5–2.4). However, this polymorphism did not influence the clinical or serological phenotypes in our study. Therefore the CTLA4 +49 A/G polymorphism is a potential genetic risk factor for lupus susceptibility in South Indian Tamils, but does not appear to influence either the clinical or serological phenotype.Tissue Antigens 04/2014; · 2.93 Impact Factor