Cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) plays an important role in regulating T cell activation, and may help to limit T cell response under conditions of inflammation. Genetic variability in CTLA-4 has been implicated in the development of several autoimmune diseases. Some studies have described associations between CTLA-4 polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but findings have been inconsistent. We examined polymorphisms in the CTLA-4 gene promoter region (-1722T/C, -1661 A/G, -318C/T) and exon I (+49G/A) with respect to SLE in a population-based case-control study in the southeastern US. Genotypes from 230 recently diagnosed cases and 276 controls were examined separately for African-Americans and whites. We observed no overall associations between SLE and the four CTLA-4 polymorphisms examined. Subgroup analyses revealed effect modification by age for the presence of the -1661G allele, yielding a significant positive association with SLE in younger (<35 years) African-Americans (OR = 3.3). CTLA-4 genotypes also interacted with HLA-DR2 and GM allotype to contribute to risk of SLE. These findings suggest allelic variation in this region of CTLA4 is not a major independent risk factor for SLE, but may contribute to risk of disease in younger African-Americans or in the presence of certain immunogenetic markers.
"Other studies on −1661 polymorphism in Korean with SLE also could not find a positive correlation . In addition, no overall associations were seen between this polymorphism and SLE in African-Americans . Being inexplicit, despite the short distance between the two locations, only −1722 Promoter region polymorphisms was associated with SLE, while the other −1661 is not. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several variants of CTLA-4 have been reported to be associated with susceptibility systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); however, findings have been inconsistent across different populations. Using a case-control study design, we have investigated the role of CTLA-4 polymorphism at positions -1661 and -1722 on SLE susceptibility in our Chinese SLE population in central China's Hubei province. Samples were collected from 148 SLE patients and 170 healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragments length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to analyze the genotypes of the two sites. Statistically significant difference was observed in genotypes for -1722, but not for -1661. The frequency of the T allele on the -1722 SNP was significantly increased in SLE patients: 57.8% versus 40.6% in controls (P < 0.001, OR = 2.002). While the detected C allele frequency in the controls was significantly elevated in comparison to that in the SLE patients (59.4% versus 42.2%). On the contrary, no association was found between SLE and CTLA-4 polymorphism at position -1661.
BioMed Research International 09/2011; 2011:167395. DOI:10.1155/2011/167395 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is hypothesized to play a role in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is important in regulating T cell-mediated immunity, encompassing the first line of response to viral infections, and genetic variation in CTLA-4 has been associated with SLE. This study examined the seroprevalence of EBV in a population-based study of SLE patients from the southeastern United States, and potential interactions with CTLA-4 polymorphisms were assessed.
Cases comprised 230 subjects recently diagnosed as having SLE (144 African American and 86 white) from university and community-based clinics, and controls comprised 276 age-, sex-, and state-matched subjects (72 African American and 204 white) recruited from driver's license registries. Antibodies to EBV capsid antigen were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with results expressed as positive or negative using the international standardized ratio (ISR) (a ratio of the sample absorbance to a known standard). CTLA-4 genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction-based methods.
In African Americans, EBV-IgA seroprevalence was strongly associated with SLE (odds ratio [OR] 5.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 3.0-10.6). In whites, the modest association of SLE with EBV-IgA (OR 1.6) was modified by age, in that the strongest association was observed in those older than age 50 years (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6-10.4). The seroprevalence of EBV-IgM and that of EBV-IgG were not associated with SLE. Higher EBV-IgG absorbance ratios were observed in SLE patients, with a significant dose response across units of the ISR in African Americans (P < 0.0001). Allelic variation in the CTLA-4 gene promoter (-1661A/G) significantly modified the association between SLE and EBV-IgA (P = 0.03), with a stronger association among those with the -1661AA genotype.
These findings suggest that repeated or reactivated EBV infection, which results in increased EBV-IgA seroprevalence and higher IgG antibody titers, may be associated with SLE, and that the CTLA-4 genotype influences immune responsiveness to EBV in SLE patients. The observed patterns of effect modification by race, age, and CTLA-4 genotype should be examined in other studies and may help frame new hypotheses regarding the role of EBV in SLE etiology.
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