Current-induced resonance and mass determination of a single magnetic domain wall.
ABSTRACT A magnetic domain wall (DW) is a spatially localized change of magnetization configuration in a magnet. This topological object has been predicted to behave at low energy as a composite particle with finite mass. This particle will couple directly with electric currents as well as magnetic fields, and its manipulation using electric currents is of particular interest with regard to the development of high-density magnetic memories. The DW mass sets the ultimate operation speed of these devices, but has yet to be determined experimentally. Here we report the direct observation of the dynamics of a single DW in a ferromagnetic nanowire, which demonstrates that such a topological particle has a very small but finite mass of 6.6 x 10(-23) kg. This measurement was realized by preparing a tunable DW potential in the nanowire, and detecting the resonance motion of the DW induced by an oscillating current. The resonance also allows low-current operation, which is crucial in device applications; a DW displacement of 10 microm was induced by a current density of 10(10) A m(-2).
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ABSTRACT: We report direct observation of current-driven magnetic domain wall (DW) displacement by using a well-defined single DW in a microfabricated magnetic wire with submicron width. Magnetic force microscopy visualizes that a single DW introduced in a wire is displaced back and forth by positive and negative pulsed current, respectively. The direct observation gives quantitative information on the DW displacement as a function of the intensity and the duration of the pulsed current. The result is discussed in terms of the spin-transfer mechanism.Physical Review Letters 03/2004; 92(7):077205. · 7.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Magnetic information storage relies on external magnetic fields to encode logical bits through magnetization reversal. But because the magnetic fields needed to operate ultradense storage devices are too high to generate, magnetization reversal by electrical currents is attracting much interest as a promising alternative encoding method. Indeed, spin-polarized currents can reverse the magnetization direction of nanometre-sized metallic structures through torque; however, the high current densities of 10(7)-10(8) A cm(-2) that are at present required exceed the threshold values tolerated by the metal interconnects of integrated circuits. Encoding magnetic information in metallic systems has also been achieved by manipulating the domain walls at the boundary between regions with different magnetization directions, but the approach again requires high current densities of about 10(7) A cm(-2). Here we demonstrate that, in a ferromagnetic semiconductor structure, magnetization reversal through domain-wall switching can be induced in the absence of a magnetic field using current pulses with densities below 10(5) A cm(-2). The slow switching speed and low ferromagnetic transition temperature of our current system are impractical. But provided these problems can be addressed, magnetic reversal through electric pulses with reduced current densities could provide a route to magnetic information storage applications.Nature 05/2004; 428(6982):539-42. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A self-contained theory of the domain wall dynamics in ferromagnets under finite electric current is presented. The current has two effects: one is momentum transfer, which is proportional to the charge current and wall resistivity (rho(w)); the other is spin transfer, proportional to spin current. For thick walls, as in metallic wires, the latter dominates and the threshold current for wall motion is determined by the hard-axis magnetic anisotropy, except for the case of very strong pinning. For thin walls, as in nanocontacts and magnetic semiconductors, the momentum-transfer effect dominates, and the threshold current is proportional to V(0)/rho(w), V0 being the pinning potential.Physical Review Letters 03/2004; 92(8):086601. · 7.94 Impact Factor