A magnetic domain wall (DW) is a spatially localized change of magnetization configuration in a magnet. This topological object has been predicted to behave at low energy as a composite particle with finite mass. This particle will couple directly with electric currents as well as magnetic fields, and its manipulation using electric currents is of particular interest with regard to the development of high-density magnetic memories. The DW mass sets the ultimate operation speed of these devices, but has yet to be determined experimentally. Here we report the direct observation of the dynamics of a single DW in a ferromagnetic nanowire, which demonstrates that such a topological particle has a very small but finite mass of 6.6 x 10(-23) kg. This measurement was realized by preparing a tunable DW potential in the nanowire, and detecting the resonance motion of the DW induced by an oscillating current. The resonance also allows low-current operation, which is crucial in device applications; a DW displacement of 10 microm was induced by a current density of 10(10) A m(-2).
"With the development of science and technology, the investigation and application of new functional materials have been the main task for production and life. Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) as molecular species exhibiting quantum tunneling and slow magnetic-relaxation processes, have been investigated from the viewpoint of applied science for use in next-generation devices, such as memory storage, quantum computers and spin-based molecular electronics12345. As a representative, sandwich-type phthalocyaninato and/or porphyrinato lanthanide complexes possess intriguing molecular structures, unique electronic and optical properties due to intramolecular interactions and intrinsic nature of the metal ion67891011, rendering them potentially useful in material science, including molecular spintronics, chemical sensors and field-effect transistors1213141516. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-assembly of functional compounds into a prerequisite nanostructure with desirable dimension and morphology by controlling and optimizing intermolecular interaction attracts an extensive research interest for chemists and material scientist. In this work, a new triple-decker sandwich-type lanthanide complex with phthalocyanine and redox-active Schiff base ligand including tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) units has been synthesized, and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, absorption spectra, electrochemical and magnetic measurements. Interestingly, the non-centrosymmetric target complex displays a bias dependent selective adsorption on a solid surface, as observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at the single molecule level. Density function theory (DFT) calculations are utilized to reveal the formation mechanism of the molecular assemblies, and show that such electrical field dependent selective adsorption is regulated by the interaction between the external electric field and intrinsic molecular properties. Our results suggest that this type of multi-decker complex involving TTF units shows intriguing multifunctional properties from the viewpoint of structure, electric and magnetic behaviors, and fabrication through self-assembly.
"The concept of magnetic charge is not exactly novel. It can be found in earlier research articles (Saitoh et al. 2004) and even in textbooks (Landau & Lifshitz 1984). Magnetic charges in spin ice are remarkable because they are mobile and represent a rare example of fractionalized excitations in three spatial dimensions: the underlying degrees of freedom, magnetic dipoles, must be split in half, so to speak, to create magnetic monopoles. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a numerical study of magnetic ordering in spin ice on kagome, a two-dimensional lattice of corner-sharing triangles. The magnet has six ground states and the ordering occurs in two stages, as one might expect for a six-state clock model. In spin ice with short-range interactions up to second neighbours, there is an intermediate critical phase separated from the paramagnetic and ordered phases by Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transitions. In dipolar spin ice, the intermediate phase has long-range order of staggered magnetic charges. The high- and low-temperature phase transitions are of the Ising and 3-state Potts universality classes, respectively. Freeze-out of defects in the charge order produce a very large spin correlation length in the intermediate phase. As a result of that, the lower-temperature transition appears to be of the KT type.
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 12/2012; 370(1981):5718-37. DOI:10.1098/rsta.2011.0388 · 2.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shifting electrically a magnetic domain wall (DW) by the spin transfer
mechanism is one of the future ways foreseen for the switching of spintronic
memories or registers. The classical geometries where the current is injected
in the plane of the magnetic layers suffer from a poor efficiency of the
intrinsic torques acting on the DWs. A way to circumvent this problem is to use
vertical current injection. In that case, theoretical calculations attribute
the microscopic origin of DW displacements to the out-of-plane (field-like)
spin transfer torque. Here we report experiments in which we controllably
displace a DW in the planar electrode of a magnetic tunnel junction by vertical
current injection. Our measurements confirm the major role of the out-of-plane
spin torque for DW motion, and allow to quantify this term precisely. The
involved current densities are about 100 times smaller than the one commonly
observed with in-plane currents. Step by step resistance switching of the
magnetic tunnel junction opens a new way for the realization of spintronic
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